Last modified: 2002-01-18 by dov gutterman
Keywords: ecuador | condor | bird (condor) | chimborazo | guayas | caduceos | zodiac |
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by TF Mills , 11 December 1997
The Ecuador coat of arms was adopted by the National Congress
in 1900. Here is an explanation of its symbolism:
Four national furled flags act as supporters. Between them are palm and laurel branches symbolizing victory. A condor perched at the top serves as a crest and offers the country shelter and protection under its outstretched wings and stands ready to strike out against any enemy. At the base is a lictoral fasces representing dignity.
The coat of arms proper is an oval disc (said to be "heart-shaped") consisting principally of an allegorical landscape. In the background is the majestic Chimborazo mountain rising against a blue sky. This is the highest peak in the Andes and its snows give birth to the Guayas River. The imagery symbolizes the brotherhood of the Sierra and the Coast. In the foreground, the steamboat "Guayas" is seen crossing the wide river. This boat, which began service on October 9, 1841, was constructed by Vicente Rocafuerte and was the first of its kind in Ecuador and South America. The mast is actually a caduceus (a rod with two wings at the top and two snakes encircling it) and symbolizes "accord and trade". On a band across the sky are the zodiacal signs for Aries, Taurus, Gemini, and Cancer corresponding to March, April, May, and June -- months which are historically significant to Ecuadorians. Centered among these is the sun, an ancient Inca symbol.
TF Mills , 11 December 1997
The bird on the top of the arms is an Andean Condor. This
native South American bird is also on the arms of Bolivia, Chile
Paige Herring , 5 March 1998
at http://www.mmrree.gov.ec/gobierno/escudo1.htm there is a governmental text as follows:
THE COAT OF ARMS OF ECUADOR
In1900 the Congress established the CoA and the flag as physical symbols of the Fatherland.
It is an oval within which there is one of the most
extraordinary landscapes of the Equatorian land [sic]. A blue sky
shows up the Andean giant Chimborazo; from its silver snows falls
a river whose waters widen in a flooding manner until they run
amidst luxuriantly vegetated margins.
It is the Guayas river, symbol of national unity of mountains and coastland, Equatorian regions. Melted contrasts for our greatness. In the wide part of the river there is a ship which reminds of the first one built in the Guayaquil docks in 1840, believed to be the first ship built in South America. It carries a Caduceus (symbol of the god Mercury and of trade). The silver Zodiac band bears in the middle a gold sun. The signs of the months of March, April, May and June, ie. Aries, Taurus, Gemini and Cancer are engraved on them, translating the historical calendar thus: 6th March 1845, fall of Flores' government; 21st April 1822, the Tapi Battle, which announced the final victory of Sucre at the unmatched Pichincha Battle 24th May 1822, fall of the enslaving regime and our political freedom; 5th June 1895, entry of Liberalism and a new political context. The whole rests on a fasces, universal symbol of republican dignity. The oval is surrounded by four national flags, two each side; in between them appear olive and a laurel branches speaking of the peace and welfare, glory and triumph. Over the oval on the top, a condor -local bird of the Equatorian Andes- opens its wings and with its majesty and energy symbolizes the Fatherland in its effort of self improvement and progress.
Historical synthesis of the CoA
The CoA underwent six changes. The current graphical version, approved by the Ministerio de Instruccion Publica (Popular Education Office) in 1916 is a marvelous work of art due to the brushes of Pedro P. Traversari, which surpassed the many antiaesthetical graphical versions of the verbal descriptions contained in the 1845 and 1900 decrees.
These are the changes:
1) From 1821 the Free Province of Guayaquil used a white five-pointed star on blue field, surrounded by two laurel branches and the scroll "POR GUAYAQUIL INDEPENDIENTE".
2) While Ecuador was part of Greater Colombia, its arms were those in the 6th October 1821 Law decreed by the Cucuta Congress, ie. the cornucopies or 'horns of plenty', bound with a tricolour tape, and with the words 'Republica de Colombia' around it.
3) The 27th September 1830, the Constituent Congress meeting at Riobamba designed the arms of Ecuador thus: "the arms of Colombia will be used, a light blue field with a sun in the equinox over the phases and a scroll 'El Ecuador en Colombia'".
4) About 1836 and at least in 1846 a round CoA with two mountains and two doves carrying olive branches was used. On the sky, the sun amongst the signs of Leo, Scorpio, Balance and Virgo and seven stars over them. Beneath the mountains, a circular scroll 'Republica del Ecuador' surrounded by olive and laurel branches.
5) A decree was passed during the third mandate of General Flores, stating that "the [coat of] arms of the Republic will have a rectangular chief and a elliptical base. Its field will be divided into three quarters: the uppermost blue with the sun setting over a section of the Zodiac; the middle one divided into two, right [sinister?] a gold field with an open book with the Roman numerals I through IV indicating chapters of the Constitution, left [dexter?] a green field with a horse; the lowermost again divided into two, right a blue field with a river and a ship on it, left a silver field with a volcano. A condor with displayed wings on the top and flags and trophies at the sides.
6) The 1900 congress established the CoA as is known today,
with the tricolour restored by Garcia Moreno in 1860, after the
Jambeli victory where the Peruvian invaders sent by Castilla were
Santiago Dotor, 21 October 1998
Concering Santiago Dotor's post:
"3)...arms of Ecuador thus: "the arms of Colombia will be used, a light blue field with a sun in the equinox over the phases and a scroll 'El Ecuador en Colombia".
The "phases" is a wrong translation which should be "fasces", as the arms of Colombia showed the fasces with a bow and three arrows between two cornucopiae.The text he gives explains that there were two cornucopiae bound together and the letters... But he does not tell, that there must be a fasces and a bow in between those cornucopiae. To prove here is that coa:
The said text was in original FASCES, but we have a handwritten copy of that text, coming from Ecuador, dating 1910 (!) where the writer copied FASES. Since then the text has always been repeated, and not the original text, which might have been lost, but is written in a later brochure about coa and flags of Ecuador*
"4) ...with two mountains and two doves carrying olive
We have two pictures of that CoA. One is circular, without the doves, the second is of normal shield shape but the doves are cornucopiae above the shield, and there are three mountains and only six stars. Who had the wrong intention? Were there cornucopiae or were there doves? Both look the nearly same when sketched roughly... I think the cornucopiae are right, as they have always been in Colombian arms of that era. In use 1832 - 1843.
"5) ...during General Flores..."
These CoA were introduced in the constitution of 1843. In 1845 the CoA of today was introduced (with w-b-w flags and different signs in the Zodiac), it was changed in 1860 to the present design, some minor changes in 1900. In our files we have seven Ecuadorian arms! 1820, 1822, 1830, 1832, 1843, 1845, 1860 (1900).
Ralf Stelter, 23 May 1999 and 17 September 1999
* Saniago dotor's response: I disagree, the original
text (in an Ecuatorian website) did say "fases" (ie.
phases) and not "fasces". On the other hand, the sun
really is depicted in the CoA over the signs of four phases of
the zodiac (Aries, Taurus, Gemini and Cancer) as is explained in
the first paragraph of the translated passage. The fasces is
below the whole escutcheon, not under the sun within the
escutcheon. The text I translated said "fases"
(=phases), and the coat-of-arms depicted somewhere in the same
website did have Zodiac phases, with the fasces below the whole
escutcheon and not within it. I have no knowledge on Ecuatorian
vexillological or armorial history so I cannot authenticate or
refute either the text or the image.-
Saniago dotor, 25 May 1999 and 27 September 1999
Jaume Olle's response: This CoA seems to be the official one of the Republic of Great Colombia. First apparition is dated 6 October 1821 in Cundinamarca and is in use until 9 May 1834 (same time several variants of the arms exist). These arms were added to the national flag (intead old one).Main source from this infos is Prof. Restrepo Uribe
The adoption date of Ecuador CoA as Dec 5th 1845 is a date for
the 2nd version CoA. The current (5th) version CoA was
adopted on Dec 5th 1900.
Nozomi Kariyasu, 13 January 2001