Last modified: 2003-07-18 by phil nelson
Keywords: libya | tripoli |
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by Jaume Ollé
by Mario Fabretto
In the Turkish period Libya used various flags: red with three yellow or white crescents in different positions, and a horizontal red, green, white, red, white, green, red flag.
In 1912 the Ibadites in Djebel Nafusa proclaimed an independent imanate (1912-17) and hoisted a (probably) red flag. Fezzan was independent in 1914, but I don't know its flag. In 1917 a republic was proclaimed in Tripoli. The flag had a crescent and star (probably red or green), and was recognized by Italy in 1919. The republic became a sultanate in 1922. I don't know the flag but it was probably the same as that of the republic.
The Sanussiyya used a black flag with white crescent and star: this flag was recognized for the Cyrenaica (under British administration) after 1945. Other flags were probably hoisted in Tripolitania (under British rule) and Fezzan (under French control).
The Sanussiyya leader became king and the Kingdom of Libya adopted a flag on 24 December 1951. On 7 September 1969 Ghadaffi, Jallud and other young officers deposed the king and proclaimed the republic and the Pan-Arab flag (a red-white-black horizontal tricolour) was hoisted, at first unofficially and afterwards officially. On 1 January 1972 the yellow emblem (hawk of the Quraysh tribe) was added when Libya, Egypt and Syria formed the Federation of Arab Republics. In 1977 this flag was abolished in protest at the friendship between Sadat and Beguin and Sadat's visit to Jerusalem, but I think that a new flag was never officially adopted and use of the plain green flag remains provisional.
Jaume Ollé, 29 September 1996
by Zeljko Heimer
The flags shown for Tripoli were not official. As in all parts of the Ottoman Kingdom private ships flew many variations of red and red-green flags. The flag Zeljko shows is wrong, as the star must be upright, like in the Turkish flag. The only official flag flown in Turkish possessions was the Turkish flag.
Ralf Stelter, Archiv fuer Flaggenkunde. 24 June 1999
Regarding the "upside-down" 1897 flag of Tripoli, posted by me in 1996, there are few words to be said. I posted this image as a part of a series of flag images based on 1897 issue of Mayers Konversations Lexicon. The analysis of there flags showed that many of them are rather dubious and could not hold the test of serious vexillology, but still they are shown in sources, and should be noted on our pages.
In many flag charts of previous centuries there are many different flags shown for Tripoli (and other Ottoman possesions), which is indicative of two things - "western ignorance" of the real situation in those "far-away" places and probable certain level of anarchy regarding the flags there at the time (which is not nececerily typical only for that area).
Zeljko Heimer, 26 June 1999
All Turkish possessions had the Turkish flags for official use (so the text belongs to all Turkish regions of that time), and some had private variations, too. I do not know, whether there were any regulations or any prescriptions for what region, country or city had to fly which flag.
There were only three flags in the Ottoman Empire (in the whole!) that were official which were so called national flags: the red with crescent and star as the national flag, the red flag without devices as merchant flag, and a special merchant flag for those who had done the journey to Mecca, a red flag with a green stripe (aka horizontally red-green-red). That there might have been regulations according to flags in Turkish possessions is the fact that Greek ships had to fly a red flag with a blue stripe (red-blue-red horizontally), and Albanian ships a red flag with a black stripe (which makes the cilvil ensign of today). Meyers Konversationslexikon, 4th edition (ca. 1893) shows R-V-W-R-W-V-R in equal stripes, earlier encyclopaedias (back to 1771 Enc. Britannica) show the same flag with variing stripes. Zedler's "Großes Vollständiges Universallexikon" of 1735 gives a simple green flag with split ends.
Meyers later 5th edition shows the Turkish flag for Tripolis (also mentioning it in the text) and shows both flags of Turkey and of Tripoli with crescent upside down. (INTERESTING: the 1892 edition of the same lexicon in three volumes shows both flags correctly, star pointing to the hoist!)
A fact: the green flag with three stars was a merchant flag under captains being retired Ottoman navy officers, similar to the British blue ensign for merchant ships! This could be seen everywhere in the Ottoman Empire.
Furthermore Turkish sources give a plain green flag for Tripoli (with some possibly important explaining text we still have not translated) and a second one with three crescents pointing to the center. The latter has the explanation "Tripoli Western" which could give the conclusion, that ships going into the western hemisphere hoisted that flag, but see above. (But it also can mean that only western sources showed that flag! We have to wait until someone translates the whole text into a western language).
There obviously were several flags for special occasions. Maybe some were used on merchant ships, others on war vessels. But when we talk about kind of national flags, all Turkish possessions had only the Turkish flags.
Ralf Stelter, Archiv fuer Flaggenkunde, 27 June 1999
[Editorial Note: See below for additional updated information]
From a note by L. Philippe in Franciae Vexilla #15/61, September 1999. His source is:
"A letter dated 20 December 1818 from France consul in Tripoli de Barabrie [of Barbaria], with a companion colour plate, now kept in file 3JJ434 in naval section of the French National Archives."
Tripoli was conquered in 1551 by the Turks of Soleiman the Magnificent. As soon as 1710, the governor Ahmed el Karamanli merged the three provinces of Tripolitany, Cyrenaique and Fezzan and created an hereditary principate (Tripoli Regency), granted by Constantinople in 1727. On 1 June 1835, Turkey got rid of the Karamanlis and submitted again the area to its direct administration, by the way of a pasha (or governor).
The Karamanli-era flags have always an uneven number of horizontal stripes, alternatively red and yellow. The flags of the Tripoli Regency were hoisted on forts and armed vessels in Tripoli, Benghazi and Derna. Civil ensigns were plain red, similar to the Ottoman Empire civil ensign.
The illustrations show :
Ivan Sache, 08 October 1999