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Last modified: 2003-01-25 by santiago dotor
Keywords: malaysia | canton (blue) | crescent: points to fly | star: 14 points (yellow) | tallest flag pole | construction sheet | jalur gemilang | disc (white) | asean |
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[Malaysia] 1:2
by António Martins
Flag adopted 16th September 1963

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The flag of Malaysia is a combination of traditional Islamic symbols and the Stars and Stripes. The 14 stripes and the 14 points of the star represents the 14 member states and the crescent and star represents the dominant religion Islam. The blue canton stands for affiliation to the Commonwealth. The proportion of the flag is 1:2. Source: Smith 1975.

Annonymous, 24 June 1996

I came across an official Malaysian Year Book in my local library and it had 'official' descriptions of the Malaysian national and state flags as well as description of armorial ensigns, state emblems and other information like state anthems, history, rulers (as in 'sultans') etc.

"The Malaysian National Flag consists of fourteen red and white stripes (along the fly) of equal width, a union or canton of dark blue, a crescent and a star. The red and white stripes stand for equal status in the federation of the member states and the federal government. The union or canton of dark blue represents the unity of the peoples of Malaysia. The union contains the crescent which is the symbol of Islam, and the star, the 14 points of which symbolise the unity of the 13 states of the federation with the federal government. The yellow of the crescent and the star is the royal colour of the Rulers."

Thomas W. Koh, 14 May 1997

The 14 stripes on the Malaysian flag represent the 14 states of Malaysia (Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Selangor, Penang, Sabah, Sarawak and the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Labuan). The blue square represents the harmony of the people. The crescent symbolises Islam, the national religion and the colour yellow is the colour of royalty.

Giuseppe Bottasini, 13 August 1997

Malaysian prime minister Dr. Mahatir visited Slovenia a few days ago and I was able to see the Malaysian flag on TV and in front of the Slovenian parliament. The flag I saw on TV had very dark blue colour (darker than Slovenian flag which was hoisted next to it) and the flag which was hoisted in front of the parliament building had light blue colour (very similar to the UN blue). What is the exact blue colour used on Malaysian flag?

Uros Zizmund, 31 October 1997

The Constitution as amended in 1963 says, "the name of the federation shall be "Malaysia", in Malay and in English". Previously the federation was Persekutuan Tanah Melayu in Malay and Federation of Malaya in English. "Persekutuan Tanah Malaysia" is a false derivation, and probably originates in Whitaker's Almanac, which also erroneously gives this as the Malay name of the enlarged federation.

Andrew Yong, 11 April 1999

[Translated from the Malaysian flags official URL:]

The dark blue stands for the unity of the Malaysian people. The crescent moon is a symbol of the official religion Islam. The 14 pointed star symbolises the unity of the 13 states and the federal government. The yellow is the colour of Their Highnesses the Rulers of the Malay States.
The rules for flying flags seem to be the same as in the UK, etc, except that in Malaysia state flags are flown in the honour position at state events and on state holidays. Also, the order of state flags is according to the precedence of their Rulers, which is according to seniority, sultans/rajas then governors.

There are pages for the state flags and arms, but I'll translate them some other time if anyone's interested.

Andrew Yong, 15 August 1999

One flag that obviously pays some homage to the United States flag is the Malaysian flag, but I have searched references and have yet to find any reason why this obviously similar arrangement was adopted. I know that various red/white striped flags were adopted by (or imposed on) Dutch colonies in that area in the 19th Century, but I have seen no other examples of a blue canton being used with them.

Steve Kramer, 23 June 2000

Smith 1980 says, "Blue was chosen for the Malaysian flag to show its association with the Commonwealth (...)". Pedersen 1971 is more specific, "Dark blue is from the British flag and symbolizes the connexion with the Commonwealth". I noticed that two recent books, Dorling-Kindersley 1997 and Znamierowski 1999, have dropped the connection with the Commonwealth. I would not be surprised if the change in the 'meaning' of the blue colour were associated with the accession of Mahathir Muhamad to the power in July 1981. Mahathir has developed a nationalistic ideology and would like to be the 'champion' of South-East Asia. This could explain that the reference to the British Commonwealth was discarded.

Ivan Sache, 23 April 2002

Malaysia is a federation of monarchies and a member of the (British) Commonwealth. The use of red and white stripes to represent a federation is clearly a United States innovation, but early U.S. flag designers probably got the idea of red and white stripes from the flag of the British East India Company, whose ships were frequently seen in American ports. The Straits Settlements were an East India Company protectorate, and I suspect that the stripes on the Malaysian flag make reference to both their federation and their history with the East India Company.

Jonathan Makepeace, 15 January 2003

The derivation of the US flag from the East India Company flag is widely posited but also disputed. It is, as I understand it, not true that East India Company ships were frequently seen in American ports, at least not flying the 'gridiron' flag. Also, the Straits Settlements did fall under the East India Company, but not after the company was dissolved in 1858, 105 years before the Malaysian flag was adopted. Absent any legislative history supporting this theory, it seems to me less persuasive than the hypothetical connection to the Stars and Stripes.

Joseph McMillan, 15 January 2003

The very construction of the Malaysian flag, with its much larger blue canton [cf. the Johore war ensign], is virtually a denial of US influence. Whether the red-and-white stripes in the Malaysian flag can be derived from the East India Company is a moot point, but the popularity of red and white in the East Indies (Malaysia and Indonesia [cf. for instance the Indonesian jack]) predates any influence on the part of either Britain or the United States. Red and white are part of the traditional colours of the Malagasy people, too, remember — a people whose origins are in Borneo.

Mike Oettle, 19 January 2003

Name of the Flag: Jalur Gemilang

The Flag Bulletin, #186, March-April 1999, page 74, says under the heading "Flag News and Notes":

Malaysia: The government of Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad has introduced many changes into the economic, political and social systems of Malaysia. On the 40th anniversary of the country's independence, 31 August 1997, provision was made for an official name for the national flag. The version chosen, Jalur Gemilang, combines a Malay word meaning "stripes" or "range of values" with the adjective ("gemilang") signifying "glorious". No change was introduced in the design of the flag.

Santiago Dotor, 20 December 1999

Construction Sheet

[Malaysia, construction sheet]
by António Martins

Dov Gutterman reported a construction sheet in the Jalur Gemilang website. I used it to make the image above and [my.gif] at the top.

António Martins, 14 September 1999

This construction sheet does not really define quite well the 'inner' circle from which the crescent is formed. I mean, where is the center of it, and what is its radius (for clarity, compare with the Turkish construction sheet)? It might be that it is easily deductable from all those measurements given, but I was not able to find it.

Zeljko Heimer, 16 September 1999

After measuring 'by hand', I would say that [the inner circle] has its center at 5+7/12 units from the hoist and 4 units from the top, and a radius of 2+2/3 units (each unit being 1/14th of the hoist, i.e. the height of each stripe). The question now is how legitimate is to add this unofficial measurements to our construction sheet... I have added these new values in a lighter shade of grey.

António Martins, 14 September 1999

Flags in Malaysia

Malaysia is really a good place for flag spotting. Flags are almost all over the place and not only the Malaysian flag but also all 14 states flags. People put little flags on their cars or inside their cars, they also use stickers with Malaysian flag and inscription 'Proud to be Malaysian' and so on. If you visit Kuala Lumpur you must go to the Merdeka Square and see the tallest flag pole in the world (100 metres). The Union Jack was lowered at midnight on August 30, 1957 and the Malayan flag hoisted up for the first time. It's really magnificent. There are Malaysian and Federal Territory flags in front of the court building and all 14 states flags under the huge pole. The flag is really big and it's really great when you see it from different parts of the city. Here is a little picture of the Merdeka Square with the tall flag pole.

Uros Zizmund, 25 July 1999

I found this flag related news in the East Malaysian Daily Express online version 13 April 2001:

Kota Kinabalu: Fifty-eight students from Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) 10th College and Kolej Ibukota Kinabalu (KIK) fought coldness and fatigue to unveil Malaysia's largest Jalur Gemilang (national flag) on the summit of Mt Kinabalu last week. On Thursday, they once again unveiled the 118m x 77m flag at the KIK main campus football field in an attempt to enter the Malaysia Book of Records.

Organised by the UPM 10th College undergraduate supreme council in collaboration with KIK, as the main sponsor, the project cost some RM20,000 and it took the students four months to prepare the flag. (...)

Strange dimensions, 118m x 77m, giving a proportion of (almost exactly) 13:20, as opposed to the official ratio of 1:2.

Santiago Dotor, 16 April 2001