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History of the Peruvian Flag

Last modified: 2003-04-05 by antonio martins
Keywords: peru | sun: 24 rays | vicuña | keno | cornucopia | coat of arms |
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All the flags are drawn in a supposed ratio 2:3 (except the flag of 1820.10, that is ratio 3:4). The original images and the text of the decrees are mostely from The American Hispanic Encyclopaedia.
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996

J. G. Fuentes [fue75] shows the official Peruvian flags 1820-22, 1822-25 (both national and military flags), 1825-present, and five Peruvian proposals 1825.
Dave Martucci, 19 Mar 2000

See also:

Flag of may 1820

[Flag of Peru of 1820 (1)]
by Jaume Ollé

The first Peruvian flag was flown by general Miller in Tacna on 1820-05-14. William Bennet Stevenson, secretary of Lord Cochrane, refers in his reports that it was blue with the sun in the center. I have never seen this flag drawn so the image is a free creation based on the description. Image in Ratio 2:3.
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996

Flag of october 1820

[Flag of Peru of 1820 (2)]
by Jaume Ollé

On 1820-10-21 General José de San Martín issued in Pisco the decree that fixed the national flag. The literal text was as follows:

Will be adopted as national flag of the country one of silk or linen eight foot long by six broad, divided by diagonal lines in four fields, white the two extremes superior and inferior, and flesh-colored the lateral two, with an oval-shaped laurel wreath, and within that a sun setting over snowed mountains above a quiet sea. The shield can be painted or embroidery, but preserving each object their colors, to know: the laurel wreath to be green and tied in the lower part with a ribbon of gold color; blue the upper part that represents the sky; yellow the sun with its beams; the mountains of an dark brown color, and the sea between blue and green.
Source: American Hispanic Encyclopedia; the blue color is applied to the snowfall mountains as reflex of the sky. Ratio 6:8.
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996

[Note: "flesh-colored" here means simply "red". — ed.]

It was created by General José de San Martín, Liberator of Peru, Chile and his native Argentina. In September 8th, 1820 when General San Martín arrived to the port city of Pisco with the Libertarian Expedition, he saw a flock of flamingos and they inspired him the colours and design of the flag. The coat of arms, similar to the Argentinean Republic, shows the Pacific Ocean, the Andes and the sun of the Incas and it is surrounded by a wreath of laurel.
Miguel Gómez-Arboccó, 21 Aug 1999

Flags of 1822

National flag

[Flag of Peru of 1822]
by Jaume Ollé

On 1822-03-15, the Marquis of Torre Tagle, supreme delegate, dictated a decree, modifying the previous, that said: «The national flag of Peru will be composed of a transverse white stripe between two flesh-colored of the same width, with a sun also flesh-colored on the white stripe.»
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996

State flag

[State Flag of Peru of 1822]
by Jaume Ollé

«The preference badge (Flag of the State) will be all flesh-colored with a white sun in the center.»
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996, further quoting a decree of 15 Mar 1822


«The banner will be equal in all to the flag, with the difference of the provisional arms of the State, that will carry embroidered on the center of the white stripe (the provisional weapons are described thus: formed the shield the flags of all the republics that fight against Spain, this is those of Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Peru , and this shield will be put between the Peruvian flame and the Chilean condor).»
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996, further quoting a decree of 15 Mar 1822

Merchant ensign

[Maritime Flag of Peru of 1822]
by Jaume Ollé

«The flag of the mercantile ships will be equal to the national, with the difrerence of not to carry the flesh-colored sun in the band of the center»
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996, further quoting a decree of 15 Mar 1822

Flag of 1823

[Flag of Peru of 1823]
by Jaume Ollé

The Peruvian flag was modified to horizontal form in 1823, because in the distance, the flag was confused with the Spanish flag, though the modification decree of the flag and of the coat of arms is of 1825-02-25. The flag of 1823-25 included in the center the sun.
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996

Flag of 1825

[Flag of Peru of 1825]
by Jaume Ollé

When started the Peruvian Constituent Asembly in 1825, a new national flag was proposed. Five projects were presentated, but Bolivar rejected all them. Only a minor change was made: the red sun in the center was changed to national arms. The approved coat of arms included the vicuña, the keno tree and the cornucopia apportioning gold and silver coins, representing the three kingdoms: animal, vegetable and mineral. The shield had to go preceded by a laurel wreath and to each side a banner with the national colors. In 1838 General Santa Cruz created the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation, in which Peru entered as two entities: North Peru (under the flag of 1825), and South Peru (with a new flag). In 1839, General Santa Cruz was overthrown and the flag of 1825 was re-established for the whole country.
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996