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The cyrillic alphabet

Last modified: 1999-10-22 by antonio martins
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This page was set as a resource for a better identification of cyrillic inscriptions in flags and flag related material. Somewhere along the way, we might have get carried a bit further than originally planned, but even if this table may look more complete, accurate or proffessional looking than some other web resources on the same subject, this page should NOT be taken as a linguistic source and we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the provided information. Ed.

This page might need an unusual long time to load (some thousands of small images are involved) and the complete table cannot be properly grasped in a typical screen. We advise the interested visitor to print out this page for future reference.

See also the notes bellow.

# glyph shape letter
and transcriptions
languages typical
sans font serif font
normal italic normal italic
1.aaaa(na)(na)(na)(na)a, azaall
2.aa(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)a umlautMaryan (Hill), Khanty-Kazim, Khanty-Surgut, Gagauz.
3.a~a~(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)a~a breve, a caronChuvash.
4.aeaeaeaeaeaeaeaeae ligature, a umlautOssetian.
5.a.a.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)a underdot, a umlaut, turned e, wAzeri, old Azeri, Kazakh, Tatar, Turkmen, Bashkir, Uyghur, Kurdish, Khanty-Kazim, Khanty-Surgut, Karakalpak, Kalmyk, Dungan, Abkhaz.
6.a.a.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)a underdot umlaut, flipped e umlautKhanty-Kazim.
7.a.a.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)a underdot apostrophe, a umlaut apostrophe, flipped e apostropheKurdish.
8.bbbb(na)(na)(na)(na)be^, bukiball
9.vvvv(na)(na)(na)(na)ve^, vediv, wall
10.vv(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)v apostrophe, v apostrophe underscoreKoryak.
11.gggg(na)(na)(na)(na)ge^, glagolhg, h, ghall
12.g-g-(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)g horiz. midstroke, g dot above, g breve, gh ligature, g inverted single quote, g macronAzeri, old Azeri, Kazakh, Tadjik, Uzbek, Bashkir, Uyghur, Romani-Kalderash, Khakass, Karakalpak.
13.g|g|g|g|(na)(na)(na)(na)g vert. stroke, gUkranian.
14.gggg(na)(na)(na)(na)g acute, gjSerbian, Macedonian. apostrophe, g apostrophe underscoreKurdish, Koryak, Inuit (Yupik).
16.g.g.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)g dot above, g hachekYakut, Inuit (Yupik), Abkhaz.
17.dddd(na)(na)(na)(na)de^, dobrodall
18.d^d^d^d^(na)(na)(na)(na)d caron, d horiz. stroke, edh, djSerbian.
19.eeee(na)(na)(na)(na)e, esthe, je, ye, e acute, y umlaut eall
20.eeee(na)(na)(na)(na)e"e umlaut, jo, yo, o umlaut, y umlaut oall but Azeri, old Azeri, Bulgarian, Moldavian, old Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, Ukranian, Kurdish, Karaim, Abkhaz.
21.e~e~(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)e~e breve, e caronChuvash.
22.e`e`(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)e graveMacedonian. apostrophe, e apostrophe underscoreSelkup.
24.e.e.e.e.(na)(na)(na)(na)e underdot, je, e hachekUkranian.
25.c.c.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)c dot aboveAbkhaz.
26.c.,c.,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)c dot above cedillaAbkhaz.
27.z^z^z^z^(na)(na)(na)(na)z^e^, z^ive"tez caron, z hachek, zh, j, c, j hachek, old style s (upper case: poud sign)all
28.z^z^z^z^(na)(na)(na)(na)z caron umlaut, dz hachekUdmurt.
29.z^,z^,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)z caron cedilla, j hachekTatar, Turkmen, Uyghur, Kalmyk, Dungan.
30.z^~z^~(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)z caron breveMoldavian.
31.z.z.z.z.(na)(na)(na)(na)zeloz dot, dzold Russian, Serbian, Macedonian.
32.zzzz(na)(na)(na)(na)ze^, zemla^zall
33.zzzz(na)(na)(na)(na)z umlaut, dz acuteUdmurt.
34.z,z,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)z cedilla, z acuteBashkir.
35.j^j^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)j caron, dzAbkhaz.
36.iiii(na)(na)(na)(na)i, iz^ei, i caron, i macron, yall but Bielorrusian.
37.ii(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)i umlautUdmurt.
38.i~i~i~i~(na)(na)(na)(na)i breve, y, j, y umlaut (upper case: yen sign), double apostrophe jall but Azeri, old Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, Abkhaz.
39.i`i`(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)i graveMacedonian.
40.i_i_(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)i macron, i caronTadjik.
41.i.i.i.i.(na)(na)(na)(na)ii underdot, i, i breve, i umlautKazakh, Moldavian, old Russian, Ukranian, Bielorrusian, Komian, Khakass.
42.i.i.i.i.(na)(na)(na)(na)i underdot umlaut, i umlaut, jiUkranian.
43.jjjj(na)(na)(na)(na)j, y, y hachekAzeri, Serbian, Macedonian, Altay.
44.kkkk(na)(na)(na)(na)ka, kakok, k cedilla, c, chall
45.k,k,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)k cedilla, k, qKazakh, Tadjik, Uzbek, Uyghur, Khanty-Surgut, Karakalpak, Abkhaz.
46.k-k-(na)(na)k-k-(na)(na)k horiz. upper midstroke, qAbkhaz.
47.k|k|(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)k vert. stroke, qAzeri, old Azeri.
48.kkkk(na)(na)(na)(na)k acute, kjSerbian, Macedonian.
49.kk(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)k apostrophe, k apostrophe underscoreSelkup, Kurdish, Koryak, Inuit (Yupik), Chukchi.
50.k^k^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)k caron, q, h apostrophe underscoreBashkir, Inuit (Yupik).
51.k.k.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)k dot bellow, qKoryak, Inuit (Yupik), Chukchi.
52.llll(na)(na)(na)(na)e^lh, lu^dilall
53.ll(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)l apostropheKhanty-Kazim, Khanty-Surgut.
54.lhlhlhlh(na)(na)(na)(na)lh ligature, ljSerbian, Macedonian.
55.mmmm(na)(na)(na)(na)e^m, mysletemall
56.nnnn(na)(na)(na)(na)e^n, nas^nall
57.n,n,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)n cedilla, n tilde, ngKazakh, Tatar, Turkmen, Bashkir, Kyrghyz, Uyghur, Tuvinian, Nenetsian, Khanty-Surgut, Dungan.
58.nn(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)n apostrophe, n apostrophe underscoreSelkup, Koryak, Inuit (Yupik), Chukchi.
59.ngngng(?)ngngng(?)ng ligature, n tilde, ngErzian, Yakut, Maryan (Meadow), Mansi, Karakalpak, Altay.
60.njnjnjnj(na)(na)(na)(na)nj ligature (dotless), n tildeKoryak, Khanty-Kazim, Inuit (Yupik), Chukchi.
61.nhnhnhnh(na)(na)(na)(na)nh ligature, njSerbian, Macedonian.
62.oooo(na)(na)(na)(na)o, onoall
63.oo(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)o umlautErzian, Maryan (Hill), Udmurt, Maryan (Meadow), Kurdish, Komian, Khanty-Surgut, Khakass, Karaim, Gagauz, Altay.
64.o-o-(na)(na)o-o-(na)(na)o horiz. stroke, o umlautAzeri, old Azeri, Kazakh, Tatar, Turkmen, Bashkir, Kyrghyz, Yakut, Uyghur, Tuvinian, Mongolian, Khanty-Kazim, Khanty-Surgut, Karakalpak, Kalmyk, Buryat.
65.o-o-(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)o horiz. stroke umlautKhanty-Kazim.
66.o.o.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)o underdot, grave, y umlautAbkhaz.
67.pppp(na)(na)(na)(na)pe^, pokoi~p, p cedillaall
68.pp(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)p apostrpheKurdish.
69.p.p.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)p dot above, pAbkhaz.
70.rrrr(na)(na)(na)(na)e^r, rcyrall
71.rr(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)r apostropheKurdish.
72.ssss(na)(na)(na)(na)e^s, slovosall
73.s,s,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)s cedilla, s acuteChuvash, Bashkir.
74.tttt(na)(na)(na)(na)te^, tve"rdot, t cedillaall
75.t,t,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)t cedilla, tAbkhaz. apostropheKurdish.
77.tctctc(?)(na)(na)(na)(?)tc ligature, c cedillaAbkhaz.
78.t^t^t^t^(na)(na)(na)(na)t caron, c acuteSerbian.
79.uuuu(na)(na)(na)(na)u, uk, uqouall
80.uu(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u umlautMaryan (Hill), Maryan (Meadow), Khanty-Surgut, Khakass, Altay.
81.u~u~u~u~(na)(na)(na)(na)u breve, u understroke, u caron, wUzbek, Bielorrusian, Karakalpak, Dungan.
82.uu(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u acute, w, u umlautKarachay, Ingush, Balkar.
83.uu(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u double acute, u umlautChuvash, Erzian, Karaim, Gagauz.
84.u_u_(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u macron, u caron, o, o inverted single quote, o macronTadjik.
85.uu(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u apostrophe, u apostrophe underscoreSelkup.
86.u.u.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u underdot, u umlautAzeri, old Azeri, Kazakh, Tatar, Turkmen, Bashkir, Kyrghyz, Yakut, Uyghur, Tuvinian, Mongolian, Karakalpak, Kalmyk, Dungan.
87.u.-u.-(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u underdot horiz. stroke, u breve, , u macronKazakh.
88.ffff(na)(na)(na)(na)e^f, fertfall
89.qqqq(na)(na)(na)(na)qa, qerq, h, kh, x, h understrokeall
90.q,q,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)q cedilla, hTadjik, Uzbek, Karakalpak, Abkhaz.
91.qq(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)q apostrophe, h apostrophe underscoreInuit (Yupik).
92.q^q^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)q caron, hAzeri, old Azeri, Kazakh, Tatar, Bashkir, Yakut, Uyghur, Kurdish, Kalmyk.
93.q^q^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)q caron apostropheKurdish.
94.o^o^o^o^o^o^o^o^omegao caronold Russian.
95.cccc(na)(na)(na)(na)ce^, cy, cepoc^kac, ts, t cedillaall but Azeri, old Azeri, Kurdish.
96.c,c,c,c,(na)(na)(na)(na)c cedilla, dz hachekSerbian, Macedonian, Abkhaz.
97.c^c^c^c^(na)(na)(na)(na)c^e, c^ervhc caron, c hachek, ch, c cedilla, c acute, c, ci, ts hachek, qall
98.c^c^c^c^(na)(na)(na)(na)c caron umlautUdmurt.
99.c^,c^,(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)c caron cedilla, c acute cedilla, j hachekTadjik.
100.c^|c^|(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)c caron vert. stroke, j hachekAzeri, old Azeri.
101.c^c^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)c caron apostropheKurdish, Khanty-Shurishkar, Khanty-Surgut, Abkhaz.
102.c^)c^)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)c caron ogonek, j hachekKhakass.
103.s^s^s^s^(na)(na)(na)(na)s^a, s^apkas caron, s hachek, sh, s cedilla, c vert. stroke (upper case: $), xall
104.xxxx(na)(na)(na)(na)xax, s hachek c hachek, shch, s caron, s hachek t, s cedilla c cedilla, s cedilla c, c vert. stroke c cedilla, xqall but Azeri, old Azeri, Moldavian, Serbian, Macedonian, Uzbek, Bielorrusian, Romani-Kalderash, Abkhaz.
105.wwww(na)(na)(na)(na)tve"rdyi~ znak, erw, double apostrophe, a breve, a caron, apostropheall but Azeri, old Azeri, Moldavian, Serbian, Macedonian, Ukranian, Bielorrusian, Romani-Kalderash, Kurdish, Kabardian, Chechen, Abkhaz.
106.yyyy(na)(na)(na)(na)y, eryy, dotless i, a umlaut, i caron, iall but Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian, Ukranian, Uzbek, Kurdish.
107.yy(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)y"y umlautMaryan (Hill).
108.hhhh(na)(na)(na)(na)ma^kii~ znak, erhh, apostrophe, jall but Azeri, old Azeri, Bulgarian, Serbian, Macedonian, Kabardian.
109.i^i^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)a^thi caronold Russian.
110.e^e^e^e^(na)(na)(na)(na)e^, e^ oborotnoee caron, e dot above, e grave, e, a breveall but Azeri, Bulgarian, old Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, Ukranian, Abkhaz.
111.u^u^u^u^(na)(na)(na)(na)u^, u^lau caron, ju, yu, u umlaut, ju umlaut, ju caron, , yu acuteall but Azeri, Serbian, Macedonian, Kurdish, Abkhaz.
112.a^a^a^a^(na)(na)(na)(na)a^, ia^, a^koa caron, ja, ya, ja umlaut, ja caron, ya acute, a umlaut, y turned eall but Azeri, Serbian, Macedonian, Kurdish, Abkhaz.
113.i.e.(?)(na)(?)(na)(?)(na)(?)e, iei underdot e underdot ligatureold Russian.
114.a|(?)(na)(?)a|(?)(na)(?)u^s malyi~a vert. strokeold Russian.
115.y.y.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)u^s bolhs^oi~y dot aboveBulgarian, old Russian.
116.i.a|(?)(na)(?)i.a|(?)(na)(?)i~otov. u^s malyi~i underdot a vert. stroke ligatureold Russian.
117.i.y.i.y.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)i~otov. u^s bolhs^oi~i underdot y dot above ligatureold Russian.
118.x^x^x^x^x^x^x^x^ksix caron, x, ksold Russian.
119.p^p^p^p^p^(na)(na)(na)psip caron, psold Russian.
120.f^f^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)fitaf caron, fold Russian.
121.y^y^(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)iz^icay caronold Russian.
122.q.q.q.q.(na)(na)(na)(na)q dot above, qKurdish.
123.w^w^w^w^(na)(na)(na)(na)w caron, wKurdish.
124.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)apostrophe, apostrophe underscore, double apostropheAzeri, old Azeri, Ukranian, Maryan (Hill), Selkup, Nivkh, Nenetsian, Inuit (Yupik), Chukchi.
125.(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)(na)double apostrophe, double apostrophe underscoreNenetsian.
126.||(na)(na)||(na)(na)pipe, upper case i underdot, grave, cedilla, x cedillaTabarasan, Rutul, Lezgian, Kabardian, Dargwa (Dargin), Chechen, Avar, Adyge, Abaza.


Cells filled with "(na)" stand for glyphs not yet added to this table but which may be easily deduced by analogy with its kin.

Cells filled with "(?)" stand for glyphs not yet added to this table and which cannot be deduced by analogy with its kin. (More information apreciated at <>)

The languages considered to build this table were: Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyge, Altay, Avar, Azeri, Balkar, Bashkir, Bielorrusian, Bulgarian, Buryat, Chechen, Chukchi, Chuvash, Crimean Tatar, Dargwa (Dargin), Dungan, Erzian, Even, Evenki, Gagauz, Ingush, Inuit (Yupik), Kabardian, Kalmyk, Karachay, Karaim, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Khakass, Khanty-Kazim, Khanty-Shurishkar, Khanty-Surgut, Komian, Koryak, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kyrghyz, Lezgian, Macedonian, Mansi, Maryan (Hill), Maryan (Meadow), Moksha, Moldavian, Mongolian, Nanai, Nenetsian, Nivkh, Nogay, old Azeri (1940 to 1958), old Russian (before 1917), Ossetian, Romani-Kalderash, Russian, Rutul, Selkup, Serbian, Tabarasan, Tadjik, Tatar, Turkmen, Tuvinian, Udmurt, Ukranian, Uyghur, Uzbek and Yakut. These are not all languages using cyrillic alphabets (more information apreciated at <>), although they gather certainly the vast majority of their speakers.

Some of these languages are known to have changed or reverted to the latin script (like Chechen, Tajik or Azeri), while others use the cyrillic script along with some other(s) (like Romani, Kurdish or Bielorrusian). Naturally, this table deals only with the respective cyrillic alphabet.

The transliterations and transcriptions provided were compiled from a large number of sources. The first of each row follows the system used in most of our pages which is the only that copes without ambiguity with all the letters listed. All other renderings into the latin script are either from other transliteration systems, linguists transcriptions, latin alphabet equivalences, etc. Some of them may apply only to one or few of the languages considered. Transcription systems based on a specific latin script target language were ignored, except for english based transcriptions. (more information apreciated at <>)

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