Last modified: 2001-01-06 by jarig bakker
Keywords: slovakia | skalica | swallowtail |
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Skalica is in northwest Slovakia, close to the Czech boder with 15.000
inhabitants. The first memory of Skalica dates back to 1217 when it was
called Zakulcza. In the 14th century it became a market town and in 1372
a full independent ”free royal town” with all the rights connected to this
status. Among these rights there was the so-called ”right of the sword”,
i.e. the possibility of judging and executing people. In this period the
town walls were also built. In 1442 the monks of St. Francis came to town,
during the 17th century also other orders like Jesuits, friars of St. Paul
and Carmelites arrived. Skalica became as important as Bratislava, Trnava
or Kosice. The citizens of Skalica were known for their handmade works
and wine. At the end of the 18th century and in the 19th century important
industries were founded: chemical, textile and leather industries. In the
second half of the 19th century Skalica became an important center of national
cultural life. Cultural clubs were founded and newspapers were edited.
In 1885-1889 a railway to Bratislava was built and in 1893 a second one
to Morava. In the 20th century Skalica became an important center of polygraphy.
An important tradition of the people of Skalica is the viticulture. Source:
the Skalica website.
Skalica (Hungarian: Szakolca; German: Skalitz has 14.748 inhabitants
(1990 census). In 1910: 5018 inhabitants (82,8% Slovakians, 10,1% Hungarians
and 5,2% Germans). The town was in the Pozsony (in Slovakian Prešporok)
County of the Kingdom of Hungary to 1918/1920 (Declarate of Martin / Treaty
of Trianon). 1920-1938 part of Czechoslovakia, 1939-1945 part of Slovakia,
and 1945-1992 part of Czechoslovakia. In this town was born King Béla
II. King of Hungary in 1131.
István Molnár, 21 Jun 2000