Last modified: 2003-02-08 by dov gutterman
Keywords: suriname | boschneger |
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by Jaume Ollé, 21 Febuary 1997
In the 80s a guerilla group in Surinam controlled part of the
country. Is named Boschneger (Bosneger Party) and the leader was
Ronnie Bruswijk. I found a flag perhaps the Bosneger flag. I also
saw two other flags that use the same colours and light blue, in
diferent pattern, and include 24 stars each.
Jaume Ollé, 21 Febuary 1997
To understand the called Boschneger rebellion and related
evenements, it is important to place them in their historical
context. Starting in late 1986 and continuing into 1987, a
Maroon guerrilla movement, known as the Jungle Commando, led by
former Sgt. Ronnie Brunswijk, rose up against the Army headed by
then military dictator, Lt. Col. Desi Bouterse.
Army repression was swift, harsh, and indiscriminate against the Maroon people. (The Maroons, also known as Bush Negroes, are descendants of escaped African slaves. They constitute about 10% of the national population). As a result, thousands of Maroons and hundreds of Amerindians were uprooted from their homes. Over 200 were killed including women and children. Approximately 10,000 Maroons fled to French Guiana and an equal number moved to the capital, Paramaribo. The resolutions referred to above dealt with some of these cases.
However, in 1988, a new democratically elected Government was installed and one of its first tasks was to negotiate an end to the fighting between the Army and the Maroons. To that end, a tripartite agreement was drawn up among the Governments of France and Suriname and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to provide for the safe return of the Surinamese Maroons who had taken sanctuary in camps near St. Laurent, French Guiana.
In addition, the Government negotiated a peace agreement known as the Kourou Accords with the Jungle Commando. This pact provided, among other things, that the Jungle Commando would serve as a police force in Maroon areas in eastern and south-central Suriname.
Before the Kourou Accords could be implemented, however, Army Chief, Lt. Col. Bouterse denounced them as "treason" and "unconstitutional." Since that time, the role of Lt. Col. Bouterse and the Army has grown to the point that the duly elected civilian authorities have, in reality, a secondary role in the peace process, supplanted in practical terms by the Army. This began with a series of private, fact to face meetings between Lt. Col. Bouterse and Jungle Commando leader Ronnie Brunswijk, in which the two apparently achieved, for a period, a sort of modus vivendi.
Thus, early October 1989, the city of Moengo, the bauxite center of Suriname, was peacefully occupied by the Jungle Commando with the acquiescence of the Army. Sometime thereafter, however, a group of Amerindians called Tucayama Amazons, allegedly organized and armed by Army, conducted a raid on the Jungle Commando forces in Moengo. It has been reported that 20 persons died in the fighting.
The Commission has been informed that the Army has taken advantage of ancient grudges held by some Amerindians against the Maroons who were relative latecomers to lands originally occupied by the native Amerindians. It appears that the Army has convinced some Amerindians that the Kourou Accords granted unfair advantages to the Maroons.
Since the initial attack, the Amerindians have divided into pro-Army and anti-Army camps with the former engaging in proxy fights with the national police on behalf of the Army, the historical rivals of the police. They have also been involved with the arbitrary detentions and killings of other Amerindians who oppose the Army's militarization of the Indians.
Evidence of complicity between the Army and the pro-Army faction of the Tucayana Indian leaders held a televised press conference in Lit. Col. Bouterse's Paramaribo office. The leaders publicly "declared war" on the national police force and threatened two journalists by name. Although Lt. Col Bouterse denied having prior knowledge of this event, but did not disavow it.
Violence between pro- and anti-Army Indian groups was particularly intense during February of this year. On February 5, 1990, the Army, in an attempt to protect its Indian allied, attacked the insurgents and reports reaching the Commission indicate that at least 14 Indians were killed. In addition, a number of insurgent Indians were captured and held incommunicado.
Lately theres some movements related with this evenements in Surinam:
- General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP, led by Ronnie BRUNSWIJK
- Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement, led by Leendert ADAMS
- Tucayana Amazonica led by Alex JUBITANA and Thomas SABAJO
Jaume Ollé, 30 January 2003
from the HPP site, located by Dov Gutterman, 29 August 2000
"Hernieuwde Progressieve Partij" - Renewed
Progressive Party (it's precursor was the Progressive Party)
Ton Zijlstra, 29 August 2000
by Mark Sensen, 26 March 1999
I located VHP flag at <www.parbo.com/vhp>.
I think there are no elephants in Suriname except in zoos and on
this party flag.
Dov Gutterman, 26 March 1999
From the same webpage: "The followers mainly consisted of
people of the countryside, predominantly descendants of British
Indian and Indonesian immigrants", ... and in those
countries elephants are no exception.
"Verenigde Hervormings Partij " In English is "Progressive Reformation Party", although the literal translation is "United Reformation Party".
Mark Sensen, 26 March 1999