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El Salvador - Historical Flags (1865 - 1912)

Last modified: 2003-01-18 by dov gutterman
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Overview

The El Salvadorian Stars and Stripes with 9 stars had a square canton. It was adopted on 28th April 1865. The law described the canton as having as many stars as there are provinces, but we have no records about flags with eleven or thirteen stars (which would have been possible), but a postage stamp of 1867 shows the arms with eleven stars and one of 1879 with thirteen stars(!). With number of stars rising the canton became longer.
The ensign had the coat of arms in the canton, but only on the obverse! On the reverse the stars were shown! So it happens that in the arms there are two flags. Sometimes the great coat of arms was shown, sometimes a lesser version, sometimes within a white circle sometimes directy on the red field.
The official name of the state was "El Salvador" since 12 June 1824 but as the Magna Carta of 1824 wrote: "El Estado se denominar? Estado del Salvador.", the name "Salvador" was used. From 1896 the name "El Salvador" was used on postage stamps, on coins it came in use in 1911, and a decree of 1915 prescribed the name "El Salvador" always to be written "...de El Slvador" and not "...del Salvador".

Sources are El Salvadorian literature, official El Salvadorian Flag book.
Ralf Stelter, 13 June 1999

The evolution of the Salvador flag between 1865 and 1912 seems to be confuse. Anyway, Znamierowski 'solved' the problem by showing only the flag with 14 stars as 'Salvador, 1865-1912'. This is quite approximative because we know the adoption date of the flag with only 9 stars (28 April 1865) and the year of creation of the 14th province, 1877.
Ivan Sache, 18 March 2001

While in  Washington DC I was very lucky and found the official newspaper of the goverment of El Salavdor from 1865 as well as the local Salvadoran newspaper from the same year. I found the foillowing information in spanish from both publications: "El Constitucional Periodico Oficial del Gobierno del jueves 4 de mayo de 1865" and "el diarrio El Faro del 8 de mayo de 1865".
Here is the law in Spanish of the flag dimensions and the crest:
REPUBLICA DEL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL
EL CONSTITUCIONAL.
PERIODICO OFICIAL DEL GOBIERNO.
TOMO 1.   San Salvador  Jueves 4 de mayo de 1865    NUM. 82

PARTE OFICIAL
MINISTERIO DE RELACIONES EXTERIORES E INSTRUCCION PUBLICA.
Decreto del Gobierno designando los colores del pabellon nacional y atributos del escudo de armas de la República.
El Presidente de la República del Salvador.
Cumplimentando el decreto del Cuerpo Legislativo de 14 de Febrero último que lo faculta para designar los colores del pabellon nacional y los atributos del escudo de armas, se ha servido decretar lo siguiente.
Artículo 1o -- El pabellon nacional se compondrá de cinco fajas azules y cuatro blancas: el ancho de dichas fajas será de nueve pulgadas y su longitud de tres á cuatro varas castellanas. En el ángulo superior inmediato al asta, llevará un cuadro encarnado de una vara por lado, en el cual se colocarán nueve estrellas blancas de cinco ángulos salientes cada una, representando los nueve departamentos de la República.
Art. 2o -- La bandera antedicha será la mercante. La de guerra tendrá los mismos colores y dimensiones y en el cuadro encarnado de que se ha hecho mencion, tendrá el escudo de armas de la República, llevando al reverso las nueve estrellas de los departamentos.
Art. 3o -- El escudo de armas nacional será el mismo de la antigua federacion centro americana con las modificaciones siguientes: 1a. en lugar de los cinco volcanes que representaban los cinco Estados de la federacion habrá solamente uno en actividad imitando al Izalco: 2a. en el espacio superiro del cuadro que debe contener este volcan se colocarán las mismas nueve estrellas formando semicírculo: 3a. en la base del escudo aparecerá de un lado y otro el nuevo pabellon de la República: 4a. el gorro de la libertad descansará en la parte en que se unen los cuernos de la abundancia que descienden por ambos lados cuadro: 5a. en forma de semicírculo, se leerá entre rayos luminosos: 15 de Setiembre de 1821, quedando el gorro en el centro de éste: y 6a. limitará el escudo una franja circular en cuya circunferencia aparecerá esta leyenda: República del Salvador en la América Central.
Art. 4o -- El Ministro de Relaciones se encargará del cumplimiento y publicacion de este decreto.
dado en San Salvador, á 28 de Abril de 1865
Francisco Duenas
El Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores é Instruccion Pública: Gregorio Arbizú.
 
Here is the translation of the Artículo 1o which describes the dimensions of the flag:
Article 1 - The national flag will consist of five blue stripes and four white ones: the width of each stripe will be nine inches and its lenght would be of 3 or 4 varas castellanas ( one  vara castellana equals 36 inches) . In the upper corner next to the flag pole, there will be a red square of one vara (36 inches) per side, placing  nine white five pointed stars, representing the  nine departments of the republic.

So this clears the doubt about the size of the flag and its components. The red square remained a  square as stars were added,  according to the law of 1898 that describes the  flag of the Republica Mayor de Centroamerica and the one from  1912  they both mentioned that they will substitute the flag of the 9 stripes with the red square and 14 stars.
Here is a photo of a flag with 14 stars used during independence at the celebrations at the beginning of the century. Also here are images of 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 star flags and also the national ensign and its variant .
Fred Drews, 6 August 2001

According to the law decree that I found , they gave two official sizes that could be used for the flag.
For the 1877 flag ther one that was officilally use in public events as shown on the picture taken at the park, but there was another version that I have seen used on books and a flag that I have from the period.
On the flags with the coat of arms (National Ensigns), the decree specifies that the whole coat of arms will be placed on the flag, but on stamps and coins of the period they show  sometimes the use of the whole coat of arms on a white circle or just part of the coat of arms.
Fred Drews, 9 August 2001

This leaves me with several questions:

1. What was used between 1821-1865?
I understand that BWB triband was used, or was it? The hirotical outline is quite complicated for these years, Salvador being part of the kingdom of Guatemala and this at times federal part of Mexico, one declaing independence from the other at times... What was used before 1821, anyway?

2. The 1865 flag is well documented with the legislative documents, however, I think that the image miht be discussed. Namely, the Article 1 of the legislation give detailed construction sheet: 7 stripes of 9" wide, square canton of 1 v.c. (=36") and length of stripes 3 or 4 v.c.
This last is, in my interpretation the description of length of top four stripes being 3 v.c. and lower 5 stripes of 4 v.c. being longer for the width of the canton.
Fred Drews interpret this as two possibilities for the overall ratio, which is not correct, I think. If I am correct that the overall flag size is 63"x144", i.e. the ratio is 7:16. (and 63"x108" flag is inexistent). Of course, Fred might have other reasons for believing there was 3v.c. long flag of which I am unaware.
Ralf Stelter writes that the ensign had different reverse from the obverse, namely while on he obverse there was the CoA in the canton, on the reverse there was stars as in the national flag. This is almost un-noticable and it might be good to point it better by placing reverse images next to the overse by each of the ensigns.

3. Finally, the stars and stripes flag was abandoned in 1912. Why, what happened then? Just a "whim"/"nostalgy"? There must have been some political background. Anyhow, we claim (as does Smith) that the current BWB triabnd was adopted in 1972. That means that we have 60 years of kind of void. Can anyone fill it in? If the changes in 1972 legislation are no more then further elaboration of earlier design, there is no much sence in quoting it as the adoption date.
Wouldn't something of the sort be better: "Adopted in 1821, abandoned 1865. Reintroduced 1912, last legislation 27 Sep. 1972." ?
Zeljko Heimer, 8 January 2003


1865 Flags


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002


Fred Drews, 12 November 2002

The previous flag of El Salvador (official name), was in effect from 1865 to 1912. It started with only 9 stars positioned in rows of 3, 3, 3 in the red canton.
Fred Drews, 9 September 1999

Concerning the 1865 flag, Ralf Stelter's introduction clearly states that the flag canton was square, although the preview is a bit ambiguous.
Ivan Sache, 18 March 2001

National Ensigns


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002

At the time there was in use another flag (the national ensign), that instead of having the stars in the canton, it had the coat of arms of that period.
Fred Drews, 9 September 1999

In a photo taken in 1911, there is the flag used by the military during a parade. The flag shows the red square with the national coat of arms placed directly on the red and not in a white circle.
Fred Drews, 29 May 2002

Reported Flag


by Ivan Sache, 18 March 2001

Based on image provided by Fred Drews.

Reported National Ensign


by Horta and Ivan Sache, 18 March 2001

I found this flag in a very old encyclopedia, it is part of the Coat-of-Arms of El Salvador and it's displayed on the right side of the Coat, on the left side there's another flag (this one already mentioned above).
Horta, 7 July 1998

The 'National ensign' is not an alternative ensign but the reverse of the national flag, obverse and reverse of the flag being placed on either side of the coat of arms according to Ralf's introduction. I suspect the image should have a proportion of 1:2 like all of the other flags of that period but I have no solid evidence for it.
Ivan Sache, 18 March 2001


June 1865 Flag


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002


1869 Flag

[El Salvador - 1869]
by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002

By 1869, 3 more departments were added (2 in June, 1865, and one in February, 1869) increasing then the number of stars to 12, positioned in rows of 4, 4, 4 in the red canton.


1873 Flag


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002


1875 Flags


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002


by Fred Drews, 12 November 2002

By 1877, 2 more departments were added (one in February, 1873, and one in February, 1877) increasing then the number of stars to 14, positioned in rows of 4,3,4,3 in the red canton. The flag is from1875.
Fred Drews, 9 September 1999 and 29 May 2002

A variant of the 4, 3, 4, 3 pattern used a pattern of 5, 4, 5, as shown by Andrees Handatlas of 1921 (7. Auflage).
Jarig Bakker, 15 January 1999.

[El Salvador - 1877]
by Ivan Sache, 18 March 2001

The 1877 flag, with 14 stars in canton, is shown by Znamierowski [zna00) with proportion 1:2. The porportion seems also to be 1:2 on the preview of the 1877 coat of arms below.
Ivan Sache, 18 March 2001


Coat of Arms

1865


by Fred Drews, 24 August 2001

1875


by Fred Drews, 24 August 2001

1912


by Guadalupe Lindo, 12 October 2002

The arms of the period were: a shield containing a volcano in the middle surrounded by water and on the left side of the shield the previous flag discussed, and on the right side the same flag but with the coat of arms in the red canton (I will send a gif of one in the future).
The red canton has a depth of 5 stripes.
Fred Drews, 25 September 1996

I decided to create the coat of arms exactly as they were during the period. I took post stamps, tax stamps, coins and post cards of the late 1800s and begining of the 1900s. All had the same emblem on them  so I created the following coat of arms from them, which follows the exact description of the law.
Fred Drews, 24 August 2001


Kingdom of the Nonualcos

In XIX century the indians revolted against conscription and proclaimed their leader Aquino as king. Kingdom occupated a part of El Salvador. The full history was published in issue 1 of Flag Report
Jaume Olle', 3 October 1999