Last modified: 2002-01-26 by jarig bakker
Keywords: swaziland | ngwane | kangwane |
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I think that 'Ngwane' is the SiSwati for Swaziland - wasn't the Swazi
bantustan under apartheid called 'KaNgwane'?
Antonio Martins, 20 Mar 1997
Correct - the KaNgwane homeland was for the
"Swazis" living in South Africa.
This was the only homeland NOT to have adopted its own flag during the apartheid era and only flew the South African flag.
KaNgwane has been re-incorporated into South Africa and is part of the new Mpumalanga province and is an area which is adjacent to the Swaziland border.
Bruce Berry, 20 March 1997
Your commentary on Swaziland talks about the history of the name Ngwana,
and the possible name change after independence. The name Swazi is
a corruption of the name of the first king Mswati I, who brought a number
of tribes together under his rule. The current monarch is Mswati
III. The name is used as a description of 'people of Mswati'.
Pekka Pihlajasaari, 24 Mar 1999
In the time of the Zulu wars Sobhuza, chief of the Ndwandwe tribe, led
his people in the mountains around 1818, where he resisted the attacks
of Dingan. Sobhuza died in 1839 and left his son Mswazi a state. He was
also a great leader (and cattle-thief) and after his death the English
recognized his state and gave it the name Swaziland.
(Source: Fischer Weltgeschichte, Afrika, p. 173)
There are different spellings of Mswazi - Mswathi - Mswati. But AFAIK the 'corruption of the name' is of English origin.
Jarig Bakker, 24 Mar 1999
From the 1840s onwards, foreign settlers secured many valuable commercial
and agricultural concessions while the British and the then Transvaal governments
demarcated Swaziland territory between them. Swaziland became a protectorate
when British colonial rule was established in 1903.
The Swazi Nation took it's name EmaSwati from Mswati II who was proclaimed king in 1840. A proud, courteous and peaceloving people, they are descendants of the Nguni-Dlamini group which migrated from central Africa several years ago (and which branched off from nomadic bushmen of the Sotho and Ntungwa-Nguni clans).
Dov Gutterman, 24 Mar 1999
On your Swaziland page I note some agitated discussion about the name
Aside from "corruption" there is another reason for the variations in the name:
When the Swazi kingdom was first established it involved the emigration of a number of Nguni from the region which was later formally annexed by Britain as Zululand. At their head was the chief of the Dlamini clan, and most of his followers in this emigration were also amaDlamini. However, when they arrived in the hill country the kingdom was established by means of
conquering the inhabitants, many of whom were Basotho.
The chief linguistic difference between the abeNguni and the Basotho (both Bantu-speaking groups which actually have a lot in common) is that the Nguni have click sounds in their language (derived from the Bushmen and Khoikhoi ["Hottentots"]) and they use the sound Z (as in amaZulu), while the Sotho of this region and of most of the former Transvaal completely lack the ability to make click sounds or the sound Z, a characteristic they have in common with the Tswana (or West Sotho).
(The Basotho of the Free State and Lesotho [South Sotho, or Basotho ba Borwa] do incorporate click sounds into their language; this results from intermarriage with Bushmen and Khoikhoi. They do not use the sound Z, however.)
The Sotho of the Dlamini kingdom were forced to speak isiNguni, but did so in a characteristically Sotho manner, dropping the clicks and the Z. The result is that while the Dlamini aristocracy of Swaziland speak a relatively pure isiNguni, called isiSwazi, the common folk in the Sotho clans speak a variety that they know as Seswati.
In the North Sotho language (Sesotho ba Leboa, or Sepedi), the amaZulu are called Batulu, and the amaXhosa are known as Bathosa (the TH combination in both Sotho and Nguni is a T with aspiration, not TH as in thing).
Getting back to the name Mswazi: the letter M is a prefix. The name of the language (isiSwazi or Seswati) involves the use of a different prefix, so the M is dropped.
The Nguni prefix isi- and the Sotho prefix se- have a very similar pronunciation. The Sotho languages use the letter E for a short EE sound, and I for an Í sound, whereas in isiNguni the E represents an Ê sound.
Incidentally, other Dlamini groups exist in South Africa. A large part of the original clan settled in the Xhosa country of Transkei and Ciskei as amaMfengu, or Fingo.
Mike Oettle, 8 Dec 2001
Ngwane was the name of the first Dlamini to make himself king in what
we now call Swaziland. For this reason his realm was known informally as
ka-Ngwane (the land of Ngwane). Although the name of Mswazi was more firmly
identified with the state,
especially after the creation of the Anglo-Transvaal protectorate (spelled as Swazieland on the overprinted ZAR stamps used there), Ngwane was still revered as the founding king. For this reason there was a movement, following independence, to call
the state Kangwane. However, the use of that name for the South African Bantustan state meant that the name became politically suspect, and the colonial name was retained instead.
Mike Oettle, 14 Dec 2001