Last modified: 2002-09-28 by rick wyatt
Keywords: united states | confederate | csa | southern cross | stars and bars | stars and stripes |
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Editor's note: Topic included in order to give non-Americans a context for these flags.
The Southern states of the USA exercised what they believed to be their constitutional right to secede from the Union in 1861. A War Between The States followed that resulted in the loss of over half a million soldiers. Many of the citizens of these states still wave the flags that their forefathers used during the brief period of independence. Some others object to this display of affection for what is known as the "Lost Cause".
William M. Grimes-Wyatt, 22 July 1996
There was no one flag of the short lived Confederate States of America.
The first unofficial one was the "Bonnie Blue", which originated with the truly short lived Republic of West Florida. I believed that it lasted for a month and a day in 1810. This flag was popularized by the song, The Bonnie Blue Flag, which called for states rights and was one of the three most popular songs of the civil war in the south.
The first National Confederate Flag was called the "Stars and Bars", said to resemble the Austrian flag, designed by a Austrian major. It was a horizonal tri-color red, white, red, with a blue canton containing a varying number of stars, ranging from 7 (the original members) to 15, including 11 members, 2 states that had representatives in both congresses, namely Missouri and Kentucky, and 2 representing those states which despite occupation by the federals, rallied to the cause of Southern independence. Most common were 11. Due to it's similarity to the Federal flag, it was one of the factors that led to the death of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson by his own troops.
The Second Confederate Flag, also called the "Stainless" banner had the Southern Cross as a canton (blue St-Andrew's cross saltire) on a red field. The cross was said to be due to the Scottish ancestry of many Southerners and the popularity of "Ivanhoe" and other novels by Sir Walter Scott. It served for most of the war as the National Flag of the Confederacy. Due to the large expanse of white, it was difficult to see at sea and could be confused for a flag of truce.
For the last several months of the war it was modified by the addition of a red vertical stripe on the fly. This was called the Third Confederate Flag or Last Confederate Flag. The canton was a Naval Jack. In a square design, with a pink, orange and finally white 2" border, it was used by the Army of Northern Virginia, the main army of the South, led by Robert E. Lee, as a cavalry, artillery and infantry battle flag, depending on size (39",45" or 51" square). This would have been the one that saw the most use as it was employed by the largest number of units and involved in the largest number of battles. The pink and orange borders used bunting captured at the naval yard in Norfolk. Upon production of material in the South, white was used. One of the first two flags given to General Lee was sewn by two sisters from Alexander, Va. The other was sewn by their cousin, a Miss Carey in occupied territory (Baltimore, Md).
In a 3' x 5' shape, the Naval Jack was used by the Army of Tennessee, one of the main forces in the Western field of operations. The Stars and Bars with 18 stars (13 white representing the 13 states and 5 red, representing the five civilized nations - Indians that fought for the confederacy) was the last one to be used in the field by the last Confederate General to surrender with the Cherokee brigade.
William M. Grimes-Wyatt, 23 January 1996
One of my favorite flags was that used by the last confederate General to surrender, Stanhope Watte. It was based on the Stars and Bars, which was in turn based on the austrian flag of red, white, red horizontal stripes. The blue canton contained 11 white stars in a circle representing the 11 white governments that had left the union and five red stars representing the five indian nations that joined the confederacy. Across the central bar was inscribed "CHEROKEE BRAVES".
William M. Grimes-Wyatt, 22 May 1996
The five red stars on the 1st Cherokee Regiment flag were for the nations of the Seminoles, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Creek indians - who - all being given the shaft at some point or another by the U.S. government - chose to ally themselves with the Confederacy, who pledged them a "we'll leave you alone" plan for their help in the Civil War.
Gregg Biggs, 22 May 1996
The Stars and Bars looked too much like the Stars and Stripes. The Stainless Banner looked too much like a surrender flag. The last red-barred flag was used for only a week or two, so no one knew about it. Basically, the Confederacy's national flags were flops, and so the battle flag has prospered post-war. Also, one of the major sources of pro-Confederate feeling after the war were veterans' associations, who naturally associated the Confederacy with the military and with the battle flag.
Sandy, through Josh Fruhlinger, 24 January 1996
At least as early as 1948, the year Gov. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina ran for U.S. President on the "States' Rights Party" (or "Dixiecratquot;) ticket. A copy of the South Carolina Legislative Handbook from that year, which I happen to have, depicts on its cover a statue of Robert E. Lee on horseback in front of a backdrop of the Confederate battle flag. This was clearly an anti-federal-government, pro-racial-segregation message on the part of the state legislature.
In 1956, Georgia added the Confederate battle flag design to its state flag, presumably to send the same political message. There have recently been attempts to remove it.
In recent years, some organizations have adopted the "Stars and Bars" (one of the Confederate national flags), instead of the familiar battle flag, as their emblem, along with the slogan "Heritage, not Hate," which, for some, is probably a sincere belief, but for others is probably a public-relations cover up.
In some Southern states, the Confederate flag is still flown over the state capitol on Confederate Memorial Day and/or Lee's birthday. I believe this is still done here in North Carolina, though over the protests of many citizens. I seem to recall that a Confederate national flag (which, from a distance, looks much like the U.S. flag) was substituted for the more inflammatory battle flag the past few years.
Bruce Tindall, 23 January 1996
by Rick Wyatt, 4 February 1997
Here is a flag that became available a couple of years ago. Many people in our area display it to show pride in their "heritage."
Rick Wyatt, 4 February 1998
by Rick Wyatt, 21 October 1998
Ever since the movement to remove the confederate flag from the Georgia State flag, various flags have been made. I Ain't Coming Down, Heritage not Hate and "state" confederate flags. We sell the Confed/South Carolina and Confed/North Carolina. I suppose flags are a way of making a statement and some people are doing just that.
Rick Wyatt, 21 October 1998