Last modified: 2003-07-12 by santiago dotor
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by Jaume Ollé
Flag of the Acción Popular Española [Spanish Popular Action], right wing party which was the main component of the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas who won the 1934 elections. The party was led by José María Gil-Robles.
Jaume Ollé, 1 February 1999
by Jaume Ollé
by Jaume Ollé
The Juntas de Ofensiva Nacionalsindicalista (Nationalsindicalist Offensive Groups) or simply JONS were a quasi-Nationalsocialist party which merged with Falange Española in the early thirties, becoming Falange Española de las JONS.
During the 1936-39 war, Franco forcibly joined this movement with the Carlists in order to avoid separate (and opposed) political groups on his side of the war. The resulting entity was called Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS and became the single state party in the 1938-1977 regime. Many Falangists and Carlists opposed this, and those who openly disagreed were severely repressed (namely José Antonio's successor as National Chief of Falange, Manuel Hedilla) and even shot on charges of high treason.
With the end of General Franco's regime, Falange recovered its independence and several other Falangist parties appeared as well.
Santiago Dotor, 1 February 1999
by José Manuel Erbez
Suárez Rosales 1981 says that at the end of the 19th century the Federal Party (of national, not only Canary, scope) proposed a flag for the [hypothetical] Spanish Federal Republic consisting of the red-yellow-purple triband with a blue triangle at the hoist charged with white stars (in no specific number) representing the different federated states. I have never heard of such a flag.
José Manuel Erbez, 7 October 1999
I have occasionally seen a similar flag with a single star, usually a homemade version at demonstrations in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Santiago Dotor, 7 October 1999
Flag used by the Partido Democrático Federal (Federal Democratic Party) in the 1930s, whether as party flag or as their proposal for a flag of the Spanish Federal Republic, or both. Presumably, each star would stand for one of the constituent regions (or "states") of the Spanish Federation. Source: a poster printed in Madrid c. 1936, advertising the party's newsletter Federación, reproduced in Jordi and Arnau Carulla, La Guerra Civil en 2000 Carteles (The Civil War in 2000 Posters), 1999.
José Manuel Erbez, 6 January 2000
Concerning the federalist republican flags I have documents from the early 1930's showing tricoloured flags (i.e. red-yellow-purple) with a light blue triangle at the base with white stars, light blue being the federal colour of the time. But there is still much research to be done in this field.
Emil Dreyer, 21 January 2001