Last modified: 2001-12-21 by jarig bakker
Keywords: mozambique | udenamo |
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In an article in "Flag Bulletin Newsletter" is a flag of the
UDENAMO. She has another shape than on the relevant
Jens Pattke, 24 Mar 2001
In 1960, Adelino Gwambe established in Salisbury (Harare) the Democratic
National Union of Mozambique (União Democrática Nacional
de Moçambique / UDENAMO), and in November 1960 originated in Daressalam
the Mozambican African National Union / MANU. In Nyassaland the UNAM was
in 1960 established by Mozambiquian fighters. All three liberation movements
fought for the independence of Mozambique. In summer 1962 patriots of the
MANU, UNAM, and UDENAMO established the Liberation Front of Mozambique
(Frente de Libertação de Moçambique / FRELIMO).
The FRELIMO was lead by Eduardo C. Mondlane, who was murdered on 3 Feb
1969. How the flags of the MANU and UNAM looked in the sixties? In the
attachement a flag of Mozambique, which I could assign to no liberation
movement. Who knows this ensign?
Jens Pattke, 20 Mar 2001
A similar flag (without the triangle) is of the Swaziland
Progressive Party. The emblem is on several flags of (former) Mozambican
Jarig Bakker, 21 Mar 2001
If you translate the english MANU to portuguese, you get "União
Nacional Africana Moçambicana", whose initials are UNAM. I have
strong suspicions that UNAM and MANU are one and the same thing. I don't
know this flag in particular, but it looks a lot like the flag of FRELIMO.
An earlier version of it, perhaps?
Jorge Candeias, 21 Mar 2001
A German vexillologist asked about this flag, for which he used the
name: Flag of the UDENAMO within the FRELIMO. I don't believe this.
It is right that with black, green and yellow the so-called "azanian colors"
are used. These colors are used by the ANC and
the Inkhata in South Africa, the Swaziland
Progressive Party and many other organizations in Southern Africa.
With the wreath from sugarcane, there is a reference to the UDENAMO. Therefore
I suspect that that is present ensign here an flag of the MANU or UNAM.
Both organizations were established in the sphere of influence of the African
National Congress, in Salisbury (Southern Rhodesia) and Nyassaland ! In
the encyclopedia of the Bibliographical Institute Leipzig (former GDR),
1970, two movements are mentioned. Both joined to form the FRELIMO. Only
initials of the organizations or German translations are used here. In
the Atlas zur Zeitgeschichte - Asien, Afrika und Amerika im 20. Jahrhundert,
by Manfred Scheuch, published by Christian Brandstätter Publishers.
Vienna (Austria), 1998, informed about three movements. The three
movements united to the FRELIMO. In the book, the names are mentioned in Portuguese or English. In the type like I quoted. Incidentally, I know also a variation of the flag with yellow star. The black star is more likely.
Jens Pattke, 21 Mar 2001
Flag of Udenamo: in august 1961 Jaime R. Sigauke, director of International
affairs of Udenamo was called upon to design a flag. With some suggestion
from W. Smith two designs were created and acepted by the Central Comittee
of the party. Both have the same pattern but one is for use of the party
and other will be used as national flag after independence. Flag is light
green near the hoist and black in the fly (divided diagonally). In center
is a circle with a star and a wreath of sugar cane. In the party flag the
circle is white and the wreath is within the circle. In the national flag
the circle is blue and the wreath is around the outside of the circle.
In both cases the wreath is gold and the star is red. Black: african country;
green, agriculture; red: liberation strugle; star: unity. New proposed
name for Moçambique after independence Monomotapa
as before the advent of the Portuguese (NOTE: As far I know Monomotapa
was a king instead a kingdom, and ruled only a part of Mozambique)
Source: Flag Bulletin 3.
Jaume Ollé, 20 Apr 2001