Last modified: 2003-07-18 by dov gutterman
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by Martin Grieve, 7 July 2003
by Jaume Olle', 21 March 2000
I have a drawing of the
Turks and Caicos Islands flag that was granted to them before
1904 and was replaced by the current one in 1968. It consists of
the Blue British Ensign with a circular badge in the fly.
This badge contains a seescape with a navigating ship as
background and a beach. In the beach there is a men, I do
not know, what is he doing, but it seems he is cooking something
over a fire. A boat over the beach is seen too. I have gotten it
from the "Enciclopedia Bruguera" and from the
Juan Manuel Gabino Villasca'n, 7 March 2000
Illustration of this flag appears in p. 108 (bottom) at [zna99], with two rows of three Blue
Ensigns each. In the second row there is "Turks & Caicos
Islands (end of XIXth century - 1968)".
Ivan Sache, 25 Febuary 2001
by Martin Grieve, 7 July 2003
Whilst checking this I found that the Union Jack defaced with
the Turks & Caicos 1875 badge was cancelled 22 September
1923. [National Archives (PRO) ADM 116/1847B].
David Prothero, 9 July 2003
by Martin Grieve, 2 July 2003
based on illustration in 1881 booklet: 'Arms or Badges of the several Colonies of Great Britain'
The circular badge on the first flag was introduced sometime before 1904. The arms were granted 28 September 1965 and the shield from the arms replaced the circular badge on the flag in 1968.
The administrative sequence was:
Until 1959 the T&C were a dependency of Jamaica; in 1959 the T&C became a separate colony but until 1962 the Governor of Jamaica was also the Governor of T&C. Between 1962 and 1965 the Administrator of the T&C reported directly to London. Between 1965 and 1973 the Administrator was subordinate to the Governor of the Bahamas who was also Governor of the T&C. In 1973 when Bahamas became independent the Administrator was up-graded to Governor.
The old circular badge is the answer to a sneaky quiz
question: 'what tropical island used to have an igloo on it's
flag?' The two white semi-circles in the foreground are supposed
to be piles of salt raked up on the salt-pans, but the heraldic
artist who drew the seal thought they were meant to be buildings
and put a door-way in one making it look like an igloo.
David Prothero, 30 July 1997
Turks/Caicos and the Cayman Islands were dependencies of
Jamaica. Turks had its own badge based on the Seal of the colony
from 1875 until 1958 when it was replaced by the current shield
David Prothero, 22 November 1999
Turks Islands, settled from Bermuda in 1678 , were too dry for
the cultivation of sugar cane, and pans were created in which
seawater was evaporated to make salt. This was shipped to
the cod-fisheries of North America for use as a
preservative. The Caicos Islands were settled about a
hundred years later by American loyalists. In 1799 both
settlements were annexed to Bahamas, but in 1848 became a
separate presidency under the Governor of Jamaica.
14 September 1869 - Turks Islands were included in the list of colonies required to submit a sketch of the proposed badge of the colony. This was probably an error. Other presidencies such as Virgin Islands or St Kitts Nevis had no badge until after the Leeward Islands were unbundled in 1956. Similarly a dependency, which Turks and Caicos became in 1874, should not have had its own badge. Seychelles, a dependency of Mauritius, had no badge until it became a separate colony in 1903.
12 January 1870 - President Melfort Campbell sent Sir P.Grant, Governor of Jamaica: " ... a sketch of a Union Jack with the arms of this colony in the centre - the arms being similar to those of the public seal.
2. I can not recommend the adoption of these arms as the expense of emblazoning them on the standards would be excessive, and I think some simple device could well be substituted (such as a crescent and star on a blue ground) but the Executive Council are of opinion that the central
badge on the standard should correspond with the seal of the colony.
3. Some explanation of the badge may be requisite : the foreground represents salt heaps with measures and raking implement, and an individual filling one of the measures with salt. In the background is a vessel ready for her freight of the staple commodity of this colony."
The despatch was forwarded to Earl Granville, the Secretary of State in London. He replied, "I concur with Mr.Campbell in thinking that the arms of this colony are too elaborate to be placed on a flag, and that the design he proposed would be much preferable, but if after this expression of my opinion the Legislature still desire to retain the badge they have chosen, I shall not withhold my sanction to their doing so."
The Executive Council adhered to their previous conviction that the Colony's Arms should form the central device on the flag used by the Presidents, and a black and white drawing of the complete seal, including royal arms, was adopted by the colony with the approval of the Colonial Office and Admiralty in July 1870.
It was included in a draft sheet of colonial badges circulated by the Colonial Office in September 1874. The Admiralty asked if the Turks Islands' badge should be uncoloured. The query was passed on to Turks Islands, now a Dependency of Jamaica, with a Commissioner as head of government.
The Council had changed its mind, and on 16 January 1875 Mr.Commissioner Smith replied that, "In lieu of former device proposed, think that crescent and three white stars on blue would be suitable. Crescent emblematic of name of islands, and three stars of the principle islands in the settlement; Grand Turk, Salt Cay and Caicos Group."
Apparently he thought that the name of the islands was connected with Ottoman Turks, but it is more likely that they were named for an indigenous cactus (included on the current arms) similar in shape to a decorative knot, which was called a Turks Head because if its resemblance to a Turkish fez.
The Governor of Jamaica, now Sir W.Grey, forwarded Smith's letter, adding: "I have the honor to state that I suggested to the Commissioner that a simpler device should be selected for the flag of Turks Islands than proposed in 1870, on the ground of less expense that it would entail, and I have to report that the suggestion has been adopted, and that a crescent and three stars, white on a blue field, has been submitted as the device to be emblazoned on the flag of these islands, which I may remark was originally proposed by President Campbell in 1870."
However the Colonial Office now realised that the Order in Council authorising the flags, required (in the absence of arms) the use of the seal of the colony. The following was written on a minute sheet. "Ref. Turks 17 February. Hasty in approving device of Captain Campbell in 1870, which is like that now submitted by Sir W.Grey. Seal without royal arms is all that is wanted."
A despatch went back to Jamaica, resulting in a letter dated 25 March 1875 from Sir W.Grey to Turks. "Having reference to terms of Order in Council of 7 August 1869 in Lord Granville's Circular Despatch of 14 September, it appears on further consideration desirable to follow practice in most colonies and emblazon flag with distinctive part of seal of colony. Only the distinctive panel required, not the royal arms. Request fresh drawing."
In September the Colonial Office sent the Admiralty a drawing similar to the one eventually published, adding, "If you concur, words Turks and Caicos Islands, which appear on seal, will be inserted under device and within wreath." Admiralty replied; "Words should be inserted."
A final twist in the tale came when the badges from the 1881 Colonial Office book were re-drawn for publication in the Admiralty Flag Book of 1889. The illustrator apparently thought that the heaps of salt were really huts, or possibly even igloos, and 'improved' the drawing by inserting a doorway into one of the heaps.
[National Archives (PRO) CO 301/55 and CO 323/321].
Above is 1875' badge before it was 'improved' in 1889.
David Prothero, 2 July 2003