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Ukraine - Historical Naval Flags (1918) - Part 1

Last modified: 2002-07-20 by dov gutterman
Keywords: ukraine | trident | jack | naval jack | border guard |
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Overview

In May, 1918 ukrainian navy officers Pokrovsky and Demenko created the projects of navy flags:
- navy ensign - white with blue saltire (like navy ensign of former Russian Empire, in that times this flag was abolished in Russia by bolsheviks).
- jack - blue-yellow with gold 'seal of St.Volodimer' (trident)
- civil ensign - blue-yellow.
The flags were approved by contre-admiral Maximov.

In summer of 1918 new flags were designed. The flags were adopted by hetman (head of state) P.Skoropadsky on 18, July, 1918.
- Navy ensign - white with blue cross (cross with thin white and blue borders), national colours in canton, gold (bronze) trident in the centre of canton. Ratio - unknown; width of the cross - 1/11 of flag-height; widths of blue and white borders - 1/8 of width of the cross.
Source: V.Trembitsky, article in ukrainian bulletin "Znak"
Victor Lomantsov, 27 December 2000

I can't read Ukranian, but the flag is described in french by Philippe in a very good piece about ukranian flags, and also in Banderas, and the double fimbriation of the cross is YELLOW and BLUE instead White and Blue. Trident color  is quoted as black instead bronze.
Jaume Olle', 7 January 2001

No. The cross have WHITE and BLUE fimbriations. The trident is gold (bronze) I have the original text of the Order of Navy Minister of Ukraine Rogoza (1918) with detailed description of the ensign. Yellow-blue fimbriation and black trident are mistakes. Modern ukrainian Navy readopted the ensign of 1918 (with small changes). Now the fimbriation of ukrainian navy ensign is blue-white too. Concering the images - the trident is gold and the cross is thiner.
Victor Lomantsov, 7 January 2001 and 3 Febuary 2001

After the Revolution 1917, the time of anarchy and demoralization came into former Russian Black Sea Fleet. The Fleet, stationed in Sevastopol, was commanded by collective "Centroflot". Diffefent political influences clashed: Ukrainian, Bolshevist, Menshevist, Social-Revolutionary and Anarchist. Very different flags were hoisted over ships: Ukrainian bicolors, old Russian ensigns, Bolshevist red flags and Anarchist black flags. They were hoisted and lowered even several times daily, according to changes of each crew's political orientation. Ukrainian People's Republic aspired to take control over the Fleet. On 22 December 1917 the Naval Ministry in Kiev was established. In April 1918 German troops invaded Crimea. On 29 April 1918 fleet-commanding Rear-admiral Sablin (Russian) gave an order to hoist Ukrainian national flags over all ships in Sevastopol. But Germans didn't accepted Ukraine's aspirations to Crimea and Black Sea Fleet. They started to occupy Sevastopol. Next day Sablin with part of fleet (including 2 dreadnoughts) escaped to Novorossiysk and hoisted Russian St. Andrew (saltire) ensigns.  On 1 May 1918 Germans captured ships remaining in Sevastopol. On 17 June 1918, after German ultimatum, 1 dreadnought and 6 destroyers returned from Novorossiysk to Sevastopol, where were captured, too. Ships remained in Novorossiysk were destroyed by own crews on Lenin's command. In July-November 1918 Germans gradually transferred many ships under command of Ukrainian government (Hetman Skoropadsky). On 18 July 1918 Naval Ministry in Kiev established new naval ensign and some rank flags (e.g. flag of Naval Minister , flag of Deputy Minister). Old Russian jack remained as Ukrainian naval jack. It was regarded as symbol of glory of Black Sea Fleet, which crews were in big part Ukrainian in past. In December 1918, when naval forces of Ententa were approaching to Sevastopol, Ukrainian Rear-admiral Klochovsky commanded all ships to hoist Russian St. Andrew (saltire) ensigns. It was a demonstration of good intentions for Ententa. However, the Black Sea Fleet was captured by Ententa and subsequently transferred to Russian "White" forces. Ukrainian naval authorities existed until 1921.
Notice that the trident on naval flags in 1918 is not the contemporary one, but is surmounted by cross. Images are patterned after black-white drawings in Ukrainian magazine "Litopys Chervonoi Kalyny" from 1932, and they may be not fully correct.
Grzegorz Skrukwa, 3 Febuary 2001


Pre-January 1918 Ensign


by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

According to http://www.uarmy.com.ua/ALMANAH/ALMANAH03/article12/art12.html , the state flag of Ukrainian People`s Republic was used as navy ensign before adoption of the January's ensign.
Victor Lomantsov, 6 July 2002


January 1918 Flags

1)
by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

2)
by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

3)
by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

4)
by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

On 18 (or 22?) January 1918 a naval ensign was adopted but only hoisted on 29 April 1918. According to Kholevitsky the trident was in the canton, but several sources say that trident was in center. Also is reported reversion of colors for the flags at sea (reversion in use after January 1918?). I dont know who is correct so here is all possible versions for future discussion.
What is the exact size of the trident in both cases?
Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

Version no. 2 appears at http://www.uarmy.com.ua/ALMANAH/ALMANAH03/article12/art12.html as Navy Ensign of Ukrainian People`s Republic, adopted 18, Jan, 1918. However this is wrong: First navy ensign of Ukraine was adopted by Law on 14, Jan. 1918.
Victor Lomantsov, 6 July 2002

Merchant Ensign


by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

Merchant ensign adopted 18 January 1918.
Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001


May 1918 Flags


Naval Ensign
by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001


Naval Jack
by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001


Civil Ensign
by Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001

In May, 1918 ukrainian navy officers Pokrovsky and Demenko created the projects of navy flags:
- navy ensign - white with blue saltire (like navy ensign of former Russian Empire, in that times this flag was abolished in Russia by bolsheviks).
- jack - blue-yellow with gold 'seal of St.Volodimer' (trident)
- civil ensign - blue-yellow.
The flags were approved by contre-admiral Maximov.
Victor Lomantsov, 27 December 2000

The Jack and Civil ensign seems to be similar or equal to the previous ones. I believe that reversion of colors was made de facto in January 1918 but only regulated in 22 March 1918.
Jaume Olle, 31 August 2001


Part 2





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