As it stretches from the Alps to the Baltic and North Seas, Germany
encompasses a wide variety of landscapes: mountains, forests, hills,
plains, rivers, and seacoasts.
A large country that borders on nine European nations, Germany consists
of three major geographical regions-lowland plain in the north,
an area of uplands in the center, and a mountainous region in the
The lowlands, called the North German Plain, have a varied topography
that includes several river valleys and a large heath, the Lόneburger
Heide. The lowest elevation point is at sea level along the coast,
where there are areas of sand dunes and marshland.
Off the coast are several islands, including the North Frisian Islands,
the East Frisian Islands, Helgoland in the North Sea, and Fehmarn
and Rόgen in the Baltic Sea. The eastern end of the plain provides
particularly rich soil for agriculture.
Germany has a temperate climate with warm summers and cold winters.
The warmest time of the year is from May to September.
The average temperature in July, for instance, varies from 16°to
20°C according to location. In January, the variation is from 1°to
6°C. There is no specific rainy season.