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Antarctica Introduction


A Short Background

Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Peninsula region and areas south of the Antarctic Circle.

Not until 1838 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Various "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century, including: 1902, first balloon flight (by British explorer Robert Falcon SCOTT); 1912, first to the South Pole (five Norwegian explorers under Roald AMUNDSEN); 1928, first fixed-wing aircraft flight (by Australian adventurer/explorer Sir Hubert WILKINS); 1929, first flight over the South Pole (by Americans Richard BYRD and Bernt BALCHEN); and 1935, first transantarctic flight (American Lincoln ELLSWORTH).

Following World War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims.

In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.


1UpTravel's Guide to Antarctica

Geography of Antarctica - Highlights the location, map references, area, land boundaries, climate, natural resources, land use, natural hazards, environment, and geography of Antarctica

People of Antarctica - Learn about the population, age structure, birth and death rate, sex ratio, nationality, ethnic groups, religions, languages, and literacy in Antarctica

Government and Politics in Antarctica - Profiles the country name, government type, administrative divisions, independence, national holiday, constitution, legal system, suffrage, executive, legislative, and judicial branches, political parties and leaders, and a flag description of Antarctica.

Economy of Antarctica - Study the GDP, growth rate, per capita, inflation, labor, budget, industries, exports, imports, currency, exchange rates, and economy of Antarctica

Communications in Antarctica - Browse statistics on telephones, mobile and cellular lines in use, radio broadcast stations, televisions, internet country code, ISP's, internet users, and facts on communications in Antarctica

Transportation in Antarctica - Offers statistical details on the railways, highways, waterways, ports & harbors, airports, and other facts on transportation in Antarctica

Military of Antarctica - Provides statistics on military branches, army, air force, navy, manpower, military service, expenditure, and facts on military in Antarctica

Transnational Issues of Antarctica - Explore international disputes and transnational issues of Antarctica

Maps of Antarctica - Discover a detailed map of Antarctica

Map Database of Antarctica - Browse a collection of various region specific maps of Antarctica

Flags of Antarctica - Uncover the flag images and description of the flag of Antarctica. Includes historical flags, symbols, and related information

Weather for cities of Antarctica - Browse weather forecast, hourly conditions, temperature, sunrise, sunset, and other weather related reports for the cities of Antarctica


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