GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
There is no functioning central government. As of October 2001, the Taliban controlled
approximately 90% of the country, including the capital of Kabul, and all major
urban areas except Faizabad. A 1997 Taliban edict renamed the country the Islamic
Emirate of Afghanistan and installed Taliban leader Mullah Omar as Head of State
and "Commander of the Faithful." He held all ultimate authority. The Taliban's
power structure has narrowed over time and become increasingly hard-line. Its
main, consultative bodies, the shuras, reportedly no longer function.
A rival regime, the Islamic State of Afghanistan (also called the United Front
and/or Northern Alliance), nominally headed by Burhanuddin Rabbani, an ethnic
Tajik, controlled about 10% of the country, mostly Tajik areas in the extreme
northeast. The Rabbani regime controlled most Afghan embassies and retained Afghanistan's
seat at the United Nations.
Principal Government Officials
President (Northern Alliance)--Burhanuddin Rabbani
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Northern Alliance)--Dr. Abdullah
Commander of the Faithful (Amir-ul-Momineen) and Head of State (Taliban)--
Mullah Mohammad Omar
Foreign Minister--Wakil Ahmad Mutawakil
The United States suspended operation of the Afghan Embassy in Washington on
August 21, 1997. The Northern Alliance maintains a Consulate General in New York
City co-located with its UN Mission at 360 Lexington Ave., 11th Fl., New York,
NY 10017 (Tel. 212- 972-1212).
Before the Soviet invasion, Afghanistan pursued a policy of neutrality and nonalignment
in its foreign relations. In international forums, Afghanistan generally followed
the voting patterns of Asian and African nonaligned countries. Following the Marxist
coup of April 1978, the Taraki government developed significantly closer ties
with the Soviet Union and its communist satellites.
After the December 1979 invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy mirrored that
of the Soviet Union. Afghan foreign policymakers attempted, with little success,
to increase their regime's low standing in the noncommunist world. With the signing
of the Geneva Accords, Najibullah unsuccessfully sought to end Afghanistan's isolation
within the Islamic world and in the Non-Aligned Movement.
Most Western countries, including the United States, maintained small diplomatic
missions in Kabul during the Soviet occupation. (Throughout the Soviet occupation,
the U.S. did not recognize the Afghan regimes, and its mission was headed by a
Charge d'Affaires rather than an Ambassador.) Many countries subsequently closed
their missions due to instability and heavy fighting in Kabul.
Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates recognized the Taliban
regime in 1997. Saudi Arabia and the UAE withdrew recognition following the September
11, 2001 bombings. Repeated Taliban efforts to occupy Afghanistan's seat at the
UN and OIC were unsuccessful.
Two areas--Pashtunistan and Baluchistan--have long complicated Afghanistan's relations
with Pakistan. Controversies involving these areas date back to the establishment
of the Durand Line in 1893 dividing Pashtun and Baluch tribes living in Afghanistan
from those living in what later became Pakistan. Afghanistan vigorously protested
the inclusion of Pashtun and Baluch areas within Pakistan without providing the
inhabitants with an opportunity for self-determination. Since 1947, this problem
has led to incidents along the border, with extensive disruption of normal trade
patterns. The most serious crisis lasted from September 1961 to June 1963, when
diplomatic, trade, transit, and consular relations between the countries were
The 1978 Marxist coup further strained relations between the two countries.
Pakistan took the lead diplomatically in the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement,
and the Organization of the Islamic Conference in opposing the Soviet occupation.
During the war against the Soviet occupation, Pakistan served as the primary logistical
conduit for the Afghan resistance. Pakistan, aided by UN agencies, private groups,
and many friendly countries, continues to provide refuge to several million Afghans.
Pakistan initially developed close ties to the Taliban regime, which it believed
would offer strategic depth in any future conflict with India, and extended recognition
in 1997. This policy was not without controversy in Pakistan, where many objected
to the Taliban's human rights record and radical interpretation of Islam. Following
the Taliban's resistance to Islamabad's pressure to comply with relevant UN Security
Council Resolutions and surrender Usama bin Laden after the September 11 bombings
in New York City and Washington, DC, Pakistan dramatically altered its policy
by closing its border and downgrading its ties.
Much of Afghanistan has long relied on Pakistani links for trade and travel
to the outside world, and Pakistan views Afghanistan as eventually becoming its
primary route for trade with Central Asia, though these plans will of necessity
await establishment of secure conditions.
Afghanistan's relations with Iran have fluctuated over the years, with periodic
disputes over the water rights of the Helmand River as the main issue of contention.
Following the Soviet invasion, which Iran opposed, relations deteriorated. The
Iranian consulate in Herat closed, as did the Afghan consulate in Mashad. The
Iranians complained of periodic border violations following the Soviet invasion.
In 1985, they urged feuding Afghan Shi'a resistance groups to unite to oppose
the Soviets. Iran supported the cause of the Afghan resistance and provided limited
financial and military assistance to rebel leaders who pledged loyalty to the
Iranian vision of Islamic revolution. Iran provides refuge to about 2 million
Afghans, though it has refused to accept more in recent years and, indeed, tried
to force many to repatriate.
Following the emergence of the Taliban and their harsh treatment of Afghanistan's
Shi'a minority, Iran stepped up assistance to the Northern Alliance. Relations
with the Taliban deteriorated further in 1998 after Taliban forces seized the
Iranian consulate in Mazar-e-Sharif and executed Iranian diplomats.
In the 19th century, Afghanistan served as a strategic buffer state between czarist
Russia and the British Empire in the subcontinent. Afghanistan's relations with
Moscow became more cordial after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. The Soviet
Union was the first country to establish diplomatic relations with Afghanistan
after the Third Anglo-Afghan war and signed an Afghan-Soviet nonaggression pact
in 1921, which also provided for Afghan transit rights through the Soviet Union.
Early Soviet assistance included financial aid, aircraft and attendant technical
personnel, and telegraph operators.
The Soviets began a major economic assistance program in Afghanistan in the
1950s. Between 1954 and 1978, Afghanistan received more than $1 billion in Soviet
aid, including substantial military assistance. In 1973, the two countries announced
a $200-million assistance agreement on gas and oil development, trade, transport,
irrigation, and factory construction. Following the 1979 invasion, the Soviets
augmented their large aid commitments to shore up the Afghan economy and rebuild
the Afghan military. They provided the Karmal regime an unprecedented $800 million.
The Soviet Union supported the Najibullah regime even after the withdrawal of
Soviet troops in February 1989. Today, unresolved questions concerning Soviet
MIA/POWs in Afghanistan remain an issue between Russia and Afghanistan.
Tajik rebels based in Afghanistan in July 1993 attacked a Russian border outpost
in Tajikistan, killing 25 Russians and prompting Russian retaliatory strikes,
which caused extensive damage in northern Afghanistan. Reports of Afghan support
for the Tajik rebels have led to cool relations between the two countries.
Russia became increasingly disenchanted with the Taliban over their support
for Chechen rebels and for providing a sanctuary for terrorist groups active in
Central Asia and in Russia itself. Russia has provided military assistance to
the Northern Alliance.
Afghanistan's relations with newly independent Tajikistan have been complicated
by political upheaval and civil war in Tajikistan, which spurred some 100,000
Tajiks to seek refuge in Afghanistan in late 1992 and early 1993. Tajik rebels
seeking to overthrow the regime of Russian-backed former communist Imamali Rahmanov
began operating from Afghan bases and recruiting Tajik refugees into their ranks.
These rebels, reportedly aided by Afghans and a number of foreign Islamic extremists,
conducted cross-border raids against Russian and Tajik security posts and sought
to infiltrate fighters and materiel from Afghanistan into Tajikistan. Also disenchanted
by the Taliban's harsh treatment of Afghanistan's Tajik minority, Tajikistan has
facilitated assistance to the Northern Alliance.
The first extensive American contact with Afghanistan was made by Josiah Harlan,
an adventurer from Pennsylvania who was an adviser in Afghan politics in the 1830s
and reputedly inspired Rudyard Kipling's story "The Man Who Would be King." After
the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1934, the U.S. policy of helping
developing nations raise their standard of living was an important factor in maintaining
and improving U.S.-Afghan ties. From 1950 to 1979, U.S. foreign assistance provided
Afghanistan with more than $500 million in loans, grants, and surplus agricultural
commodities to develop transportation facilities, increase agricultural production,
expand the educational system, stimulate industry, and improve government administration.
In the 1950s, the U.S. declined Afghanistan's request for defense cooperation
but extended an economic assistance program focused on the development of Afghanistan's
physical infrastructure--roads, dams, and power plants. Later, U.S. aid shifted
from infrastructure projects to technical assistance programs to help develop
the skills needed to build a modern economy. The Peace Corps was active in Afghanistan
between 1962 and 1979.
After the April 1978 coup, relations deteriorated. In February 1979, U.S. Ambassador
Adolph "Spike" Dubs was murdered in Kabul after Afghan security forces burst in
on his kidnapers. The U.S. then reduced bilateral assistance and terminated a
small military training program. All remaining assistance agreements were ended
after the Soviet invasion.
Following the Soviet invasion, the United States supported diplomatic efforts
to achieve a Soviet withdrawal. In addition, generous U.S. contributions to the
refugee program in Pakistan played a major part in efforts to assist Afghans in
need. U.S. efforts also included helping Afghans living inside Afghanistan. This
cross-border humanitarian assistance program aimed at increasing Afghan self-sufficiency
and helping Afghans resist Soviet attempts to drive civilians out of the rebel-dominated
countryside. During the period of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, the U.S. provided
about $3 billion in military and economic assistance to Afghans and the resistance
The U.S. Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989 for security reasons.
The U.S. has supported the peaceful emergence of a broad-based government representative
of all Afghans and has been active in encouraging a UN role in the national reconciliation
process in Afghanistan. The U.S. provides financial aid for mine-clearing activities
and other humanitarian assistance to Afghans through international organizations.
The U.S. is the largest provider of humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan. The
aid effort has continued despite a U.S. cruise missile attack on a terrorist camp
in Afghanistan associated with Usama bin Laden in 1998 and with the military action
taken against terrorist and Taliban targets in October 2001.
During the Soviet occupation, the United Nations was highly critical of the U.S.S.R.'s
interference in the internal affairs of Afghanistan and was instrumental in obtaining
a negotiated Soviet withdrawal under the terms of the Geneva Accords.
In the aftermath of the Accords and subsequent Soviet withdrawal, the United
Nations has assisted in the repatriation of refugees and has provided humanitarian
aid such as health care, educational programs, and food and has supported mine-clearing
operations. The UNDP and associated agencies have undertaken a limited number
of development projects. However, the UN reduced its role in Afghanistan in 1992
in the wake of fierce factional strife in and around Kabul. The UN Secretary General
has designated a personal representative to head the Office for the Coordination
of Humanitarian Assistance to Afghanistan (UNOCHA) and the Special Mission to
Afghanistan (UNSMA), both based in Islamabad, Pakistan. Throughout the late 1990s,
2000, and 2001, the UN unsuccessfully strived to promote a peaceful settlement
between the Afghan factions as well as provide humanitarian aid, this despite
increasing Taliban restrictions upon UN personnel and agencies.
conventional long form:
Islamic State of Afghanistan; note - the self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
conventional short form:
local long form:
Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
local short form:
Republic of Afghanistan
no functioning central government, administered by factions
30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol; note - there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst
19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)
NA; previously males 15-50 years of age
on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning government at this time, and the country remains divided among fighting factions
the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government of Afghanistan; however, the UN still recognizes the government of Burhanuddin RABBANI; the Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations among the warring factions; the country is essentially divided along ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and approximately two-thirds of the country including the predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have their stronghold in the ethnically diverse north
non-functioning as of June 1993
upper courts were non-functioning as of March 1995 (local Shari'a or Islamic law courts are functioning throughout the country)
|Political parties and leaders:
Taliban (Religious Students Movement) [Mullah Mohammad OMAR]; United National Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan or UNIFSA [Burhanuddin RABBANI, chairman; Gen. Abdul Rashid DOSTAM, vice chairman; Ahmad Shah MASOOD, military commander; Mohammed Yunis QANUNI, spokesman]; note - made up of 13 parties opposed to the Taliban including Harakat-i-Islami Afghanistan (Islamic Movement of Afghanistan), Hizb-i-Islami (Islamic Party), Hizb-i-Wahdat-i-Islami (Islamic Unity Party), Jumaat-i-Islami Afghanistan (Islamic Afghan Society), Jumbish-i-Milli (National Front), Mahaz-i-Milli-i-Islami (National Islamic Front)
|Political pressure groups and leaders:
Afghan refugees in Pakistan, Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Mellat (Social Democratic Party) [leader NA]; Peshawar, Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National Unity and Understanding in Afghanistan or CUNUA [Ishaq GAILANI]; tribal elders represent traditional Pashtun leadership; Writers Union of Free Afghanistan or WUFA [A. Rasul AMIN]
|International organization participation:
AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO
|Diplomatic representation in the US:
none; note - embassy operations suspended 21 August 1997
|Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US embassy in Kabul has been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed scimitars
the Taliban uses a plain white flag