HISTORY OF BELIZE
The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize
between 1500 BC and AD 300 and flourished until about AD 1200. Several major archeological
sites, notably Caracol, Lamanai, Lubaantun, Altun Ha, and Xunantunich, reflect
the advanced civilization and much denser population of that period. European
contact began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the coast. The first
recorded European settlement was begun by shipwrecked English seamen in 1638.
Over the next 150 years, more English settlements were established. This period
also was marked by piracy, indiscriminate logging, and sporadic attacks by Indians
and neighboring Spanish settlements.
Great Britain first sent an official representative
to the area in the late 18th century but Belize was not formally termed the "Colony
of British Honduras" until 1840. It became a crown colony in 1862. Subsequently,
several constitutional changes were enacted to expand representative government.
Full internal self-government under a ministerial system was granted in January
1964. The official name of the territory was changed from British Honduras to
Belize in June 1973, and full independence was granted on September 21, 1981.