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    Iran Geography




    Iran    Geography Top of Page
    Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan
    Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E
    Map references: Middle East
    Area: total:  1.648 million sq km

    land:  1.636 million sq km

    water:  12,000 sq km
    Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska
    Land boundaries: total:  5,440 km

    border countries:  Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
    Coastline: 2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
    Maritime claims: contiguous zone:  24 NM

    continental shelf:  natural prolongation

    exclusive economic zone:  bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf

    territorial sea:  12 NM
    Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
    Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
    Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Caspian Sea -28 m

    highest point:  Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m
    Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
    Land use: arable land:  10%

    permanent crops:  1%

    permanent pastures:  27%

    forests and woodland:  7%

    other:  55% (1993 est.)
    Irrigated land: 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)
    Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast
    Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water
    Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

    signed, but not ratified:  Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

     

    Countryfacts Information Courtesy: CIA Worldbook








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