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1UpTravel - Geography Info and Facts of Countries : . - Netherlands


Netherlands Geography and Facts

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 30 N, 5 45 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 41,532 sq km
land: 33,889 sq km
water: 7,643 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,027 km
border countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Prins Alexanderpolder -7 m
highest point: Vaalserberg 321 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 39% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,000 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: the extensive system of dikes and dams protects nearly one-half of the total area from being flooded

Environment - current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)


Geography

Netherlands, also known unofficially as Holland, constitutional monarchy of northwestern Europe, bordered on the north and west by the North Sea, on the east by Germany, and on the south by Belgium.

With Belgium and Luxembourg, the Netherlands forms the Low, or Benelux, Countries. The Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, islands in the Caribbean, are part of the Netherlands.

The European portion of the Netherlands has a total area of 41,526 sq km (16,033 sq mi), of which 33,939 sq km (13,104 sq mi) is land surface. The country's capital and largest city is Amsterdam.

The Netherlands, as its name suggests, is a low-lying country. About half of the country's landmass lies below sea level. This amount would increase should the polar ice caps melt and slowly raise the level of the sea due to global warming.

Much of the western part, situated below sea level, is covered with clay and peat soils interspersed with canals, rivers, and arms of the sea. Farther to the east the land lies slightly above sea level and is flat to gently rolling. The elevation rarely exceeds 50 m (160 ft). Most of the land is devoted to agriculture; only small areas of forest and heath remain.


Climate

The Netherlands shares the temperate maritime climate common to much of northern and western Europe. The average temperature range in Vlissingen in the coastal region is 1 to 5 C (34 to 41 F) in January and 14 to 21 C (57 to 69 F) in July.

In De Bilt, in the densely populated central region of the country, the average range is -1 to 4 C (31 to 40 F) in January and 13 to 22 C (55 to 72 F) in July.

Annual precipitation averages 690 mm (27 in) in Vlissingen and 770 mm (30 in) in De Bilt. Cloudless days are uncommon, as is prolonged frost. Because the Netherlands has few natural barriers, such as high mountains, the climate varies little from region to region.


Background:
The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I but suffered a brutal invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II.

A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EC, and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999.

Netherlands is a small country on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. It is bordered by Belgium and Germany.

The Netherlands is often called Holland, but this name officially refers only to the western part of the country.

The people of the Netherlands call themselves Nederlanders. They are also known as the Dutch.


Netherlands is a small country on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. It is bordered by Belgium and Germany. The Netherlands is often called Holland, but this name officially refers only to the western part of the country.

The people of the Netherlands call themselves Nederlanders. They are also known as the Dutch.



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