Ecuador, republic in northwestern South America, bounded by Colombia
on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific
Ocean on the west.
The country also includes the Galápagos Islands (Archipiélago de
Colón) in the Pacific, about 965 km (about 600 mi) west of the mainland.
Ecuador straddles the equator has an area of 272,045 sq km (105,037
sq mi). Quito is the country's capital.
Although Ecuador lies on the equator, the country has a wide range
of climates because of the varying elevations. The Costa is generally
hot and humid, with a mean annual temperature of about 26° C (about
On the Sierra the temperatures range between about 7° C and 21°
C (about 45° and 70° F), depending on the elevation. Quito, which
is some 2,850 m (some 9,350 ft) above sea level, has an average
annual temperature of 13° C (55° F).
The Oriente is warmer and more humid than the Costa; temperatures
approach the upper 30°s C (lower 100°s F), and annual precipitation
is about 2,030 mm (about 80 in).