In ancient times the area that now comprises Pakistan marked the
farthest reaches of the conquests of Alexander the Great. It was
also the home of Buddhist Ghandaran culture.
Created in response to Muslim demands for an Islamic state when
India gained independence in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan
originally consisted of two parts; East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)
and West Pakistan (now a single unitary state), separated from each
other by 1600km (1000 miles) of Indian territory.