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Scandinavian Crosses (Overview)

Last modified: 2003-02-01 by rob raeside
Keywords: cross | scandinavian cross |
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Below is a compilation of off-centred crosses (Scandinavian style), found on flags on this web site. Although commonly described as Scandinavian crosses, the flags linked here include many variants from many places in and outside Scandinavia. Fimbriation colours are identified in brackets. Crosses in italics are proposals, or flags of uncertain or dubious status.

White Yellow Red Blue Green Black
Latvian War Ensign (red),
Diever, Netherlands (red),
Idaerderadiel, Netherlands,
Finnish Yacht Club (blue)

Catholic Cathedra of Stockholm,
West Sweden (blue),
Swedish speaking in the Baltic (blue),
Swedish speaking in the Baltic (red)

Schleswig-Holstein (19th Century variants),
Goor, Netherlands,
Vestlandet (blue),
Greenland - Administration Ships,
Greenland (green),
Saarland 1947**

Manta, Manabi, Ecuador,
Finland 1863 proposal,
Iceland 1897,
Parnu, Estonia,
Estonia (black),
Saarland 1947**

Puerto Rico Independence Party,
Tyri Linn, Jarvamaa, Estonia,
New Milford, Connecticut USA,
Greenland (blue)

CIDEC (Argentina)
Norrland (blue),
Åland (blue),
Northern Norway (red)
Borger-Odoorn, Drenthe, Netherlands (red)

Nordisk Flaggselskapp (red)

Swedish speaking people in Finland,
Finland 1863 proposal,
Teshreen Club, Latakia, Syria,
Trøndeland (blue), CDU proposal for Germany (black), Finland proposal (1863) (blue),
Finnish merchant ensign (1918) (blue, white)

Riga, Latvia (17th C),
Hälsingland (red),
North Friesland variant (red)

Pula (Croatia),
Avinyó, Spain,

Bologna, Italy,
Belarussian Christian-Democratic Union,
Havelte, Netherlands
Ventspils, Latvia
Canada: Mi'kmaq Grand Council,
Luesia, Spain (with yellow fly triangle)
Tonga naval ensign (white, red),
Episcopal Church,
Faroe Islands (blue),
Flag Institute,
Safmarine, South Africa (black), Litvinians

Orkney Islands,
Christian Democratic Union proposal (black),
Ruurlo, Netherlands

Normandie (yellow)

Chilean Ministers and Diplomats,
Iceland (white),
Åland (yellow),
Finland 1863 proposal (yellow),
Finland 1863 proposal (green),
Alegre, Brazil (yellow),
Mizoram India (white)

Småland (white),
Karelia (black)

République Libre du Frioul, France,
Karelia (1930 proposal),
Bayamon Puerto Rico (yellow),
Maya Lenca people, El Salvador,
Iceland proposal (1914) (white, blue),
Oosterhesselen, Netherlands,
Wierden, Netherlands, Andalucia, Colombia

Northern Frisia (red),
Ingria (red)

Norway (white),
Trøndeland (yellow)

Åland (yellow)

Vepsians (yellow)



Bornholm (white)

Votia, Russia,
Öland (yellow),
Vendsyssel (orange)

Haaren, Netherlands (white)

Teutonic Order,
German Empire (white, black),
Baltic Duchy,
Bezen Perot (Breton Political movement),
IJsselham, Netherlands

Anloo, Netherlands (yellow, black),
Vledder, Netherlands (yellow, black)

German Third Reich war ensign (white, black, white)
Wirmer proposal for Germany (yellow)

Bleimor (Sea scouts, Brittany),
East Karelia 1930 proposal (red),
Vinnland (musical group) (white)

A Reformist (Evangelist?) Church in Croatia


Småland (white)

White Yellow Red Blue Green Black

**Note: Saarland (1947-1956) is a white Scandinavian cross on a bi-colour base, blue in the hoist, red in the fly.

I recently received the INFO bulletin of the "Vlaggen Dokumentatie Centrum Nederland" (Flad Documentation Center of the Netherlands). It lists a number of flags using the nordic cross design. Derk (Derkwillem Visser, Jr.; the editor) states that they come from "Under Nordisk Flagg" (Under the Northern Flags) by Per Andersson.

William M. Grimes-Wyatt, 6 March 1996

Corrections and additions by Jan Oskar Engene, Zeljko Heimer and Pascal Vagnat.

Two other books may be of interest:

  • Per Andersson: Under nordisk flagg, Mjolby: Drakings bokforlag, 1994
  • Per Andersson: Nordiska korsflaggor, Mjolby: Bokforlaget Draking, 1992

Both books are in Swedish. The latter one is more concentrated on flags than the former. One problem with these works is that there are no references, so we are often not told when and where the flags surfaced. I am sceptical towards the existence of some of them. Probably, quite a few of the designs are merely proposals. The lack of references and documentation in the booklets mentioned, made it difficult to decide the status of some of the flags.

Jan Oskar Engene, 7 March 1996

What defines a Scandinavian Cross?

A Scandinavian cross would by most vexillologists be defined as a straight-armed cross on a flag which goes out to the ends of the flag and which have the centre of the cross set closer to the hoist than to the fly.
Elias Grandqvist, 13 April 2001

The term Scandinavian cross is used to describe a 'hoist-ward off-set straight-armed orthogonal cross throughout' when this is appropriate, that is, when there is indeed a connection to Scandinavia, and not to do so otherwise.  Some vexillologists would insist that the connection to Scandinavia is essential, others don't.
Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 4 July 2001

How many Scandinavian Cross flags are there?

I don't know if you can say for sure, exactly how many flags with Scandinavian crosses there are. It depends a bit on what flag you want to consider. Some flags with Scandinavian crosses are unofficial, private initiatives for some geographical areas, others are merely proposals which might never really have been in use.

There are 5 countries in the world today which have flags with Scandinavian crosses as their official national flags. All of them also have Scandinavian crosses in their state and/or their war flags. Would the later special flags count as flags on their own when counting the flags with Scandinavian crosses?
Elias Grandqvist, 13 April 2001



There's a book about flags with this types of crosses, "Nordiska Korsflaggor", written by Per Andersson (1992). This book is known to not be very specific about sources, so some people regard many of the flags described in it as rather dubious.

Elias Grandqvist, 13 April 2001

Related pages

See also