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Travel & Tourism . Tourist Guide to the Country

Mongolia History and Culture

Mongolian ancient history reaches back to the 12th century. Tibetan Buddhist theocracy and secular Mongol aristocracy ruled the country from 1696 until the 20th century, under the suzerainty of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty of China. Mongolia declared independence from China after the Chinese revolution of 1911.

Russian-backed Mongolian Communists established a Provisional People's Government in 1921. The Mongolian People's Republic was set up after the death of the last Buddhist ruler in 1924 but was not recognized by China until 1946. Mongolia maintained close ties with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Trade and cultural relations with Communist China, established in 1949, were curtailed by the Sino-Soviet split in the late 1950s.

Mongolia's first president of the post-Soviet era was Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat. In 1993 President Ochirbat and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. In 1996 a democratic coalition won a majority in parliamentary elections, toppling Mongolia's Communist-era government and ending 75 years of Communist control.

Mongolia did not achieve a cohesive culture until the 20th century, when it became an independent nation. Only a few remnants of ancient cultures exist, including Stone Age campsites, and much of Mongolia's traditional folklore has been lost with succeeding generations. The Republic of Mongolia has tried to establish a national culture and has sponsored drama, art schools, and a state theater of music and drama. Mongolian literature is rich and epic in form.


Acknowledgements: ASIATRAVELMART.COM

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