Saudi Arabia, monarchy in southwestern Asia, occupying most of the
Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is bounded on the north by Jordan,
Iraq, and Kuwait; on the east by the Persian Gulf and Qatar; on
the southeast by the United Arab Emirates and Oman; on the south
by the Republic of Yemen; and on the west by the Red Sea and the
Gulf of Aqaba.
The country's borders with Yemen and the United Arab Emirates are
not precisely defined. Saudi Arabia has an area of about 2,240,000
sq km (about 864,900 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Riyadh.
Extreme heat and aridity are characteristic of most of Saudi Arabia.
The Arabian Peninsula is one of the few places in the world where
summer temperatures above 48° C (120° F) are common, while in winter
frost or snow can occur in the interior and the higher mountains.
Precipitation is sparse throughout the country.
Annual rainfall in Riyadh averages 100 mm (4 in) and falls almost
exclusively between January and May; the average in Jiddah is 61
mm (2.4 in) and occurs between November and January. Because of
the general aridity, Saudi Arabia has no permanent rivers or lakes.